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# Signals & Systems

Spring 2009

UET TAXILA
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Today's lecture
− The course
− Course contents
− Recommended books
− Course structure
− Assessments breakdown
− Before we start…
− Introduction to signals and systems

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Linear Algebra.The Course − Core course − First course in Telecommunication Engineering − A strong foundation for advanced courses and research − What the course is about  Analysis and processing of information  System design for required processing − Mathematical & theoretical  Calculus. Differential − Expectations − Extensive and tough 3 .

Course contents − Introduction to Signals and Systems − Sinusoids − Spectrum Representation − Analysis of Periodic Waveforms − Sampling and Aliasing − Filters − Convolution − Frequency response − Fourier Series and Transforms − Continuous-time & Discrete-time Systems 4 .

Books Signal Processing First  Text book by James H. Ronald W. Willsky. Mark A. Alan S. 5 S. Yoder Signals & Systems (Second Edition)  Reference book by Alan V. Hamid Nawab . McClellan. Schafer. Oppenheim.

Assessments Quizzes Assignments Sessionals Matlab Final Exam 10% 2% 36% 2% 50% 6 .

Signal − What is a signal − A description of how one parameter is related to another parameter − Examples  The voltage varies with time v t 7 .

Signal  The Speech Signal  The ECG Signal 8 .

Signal  The image 9 .

Signal  The image 10 .

heat & light signal 11 . in a signal − Signal may exist in many forms like acoustic. image. video.Signal − It is the variation pattern that conveys the information. electrical.

System − An entity that responds to a signal input syste m output − Examples  Circuit 12 .

System  The camera Image  The Speech Recognition System Identified 13 .

System  The audio CD-player − Block Diagram representation of a system  Visual representation of a system Input Signal system Output Signal  Shows inter-relations of many signals involved in the implementation of a complex system − Look at everything around and try to identify the signals and systems !! 14 .

Mathematical Representation − A signal can be represented as a function of one or more independent variables − Examples t v t   sin  t  0  t  2 s t  15 .

y  16 .Mathematical Representation  The image is a function of two spatial variables s  x.

Continuous-time signals − A value of signal exists at every instant of time t Independent variable t Independent variable 17 .

Discrete-time signals − The value of signal exists only at equally spaced discrete points in time t Independent variable t Independent variable 18 .

Discrete-time signals − Why to discretize − How to discretize  How closely spaced are the samples − Distinction between discrete & digital signals − How to denote discrete signals − Is the image a discrete or continuous signal  The image is generally considered to be a continuous variable  Sampling can however be used to obtain a discrete. two dimensional signal (sampled 19 image) .

Notation − A continuous-time signal is represented by enclosing the independent variable (time) in parentheses () x t  t − A discrete-time signal is represented by enclosing the independent variable (index) x n in square brackets [] n 20 .