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Written Communication

Written Communication
Written communication has great significance in
todays business world. It is an innovative
activity of the mind.
Effective written communication is essential for
preparing worthy promotional materials for
business development.
Speech came before writing. But writing is more
unique and formal than speech.
Effective writing involves careful choice of
words, their organization in correct order in
sentences formation as well as cohesive
composition of sentences.
Also, writing is more valid and reliable than
speech. But while speech is spontaneous,
writing causes delay and takes time as feedback
is not immediate.

Types Of Written

Characteristics of Written
Most formal Communication
type of communication .

Used for Documentation :: It involve notices, memos,

deeds, resolution, affidavits, complaints, reports, financial
statement, cost sheet, appointments, promotions etc.
Conventional by Nature.
Used for circulation of Information.
Written communication is essentially a creative activity.
This is not a face to face communication situation.
Written communication time factor involves.
The process of written communication involve sending
message by words.
There is more exchange of ideas in oral
communication i.e. Written Communication has
fewer cycles.

Advantages of Written
Written communication helps in laying down apparent
principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful
where record maintenance is required.
It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in
case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and
delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can
be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to
Written communication is more precise and explicit.
Effective written communication develops and enhances an
organizations image.
It provides ready records and references.
Legal defences can depend upon written communication as
it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written

Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs

huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in
writing/typing and delivering letters.
Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by
distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is
not spontaneous.
Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not
The encoding and sending of message takes time.
Effective written communication requires great skills and
competencies in language and vocabulary use.
Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on
organizations reputation.
Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.

Main differences between e-mail

and hard copy correspondence:
Format: your signature block (address,
etc.) goes below your name in e-mail,
while it goes at the top of the page on
hard copy.
E-mail requires a subject line logical to the
recipient. E-mail subject lines can make or
break whether your e-mail is opened and
read. Hard copy can have a subject line
too, but it's on the letter (after recipient's
address block and before "Dear...," and it's
seen after the letter is opened.
Signature: Of course you won't have a
handwritten signature on e-mail, but don't
forget this on hard copy.

Types of Letters

Private Letters
Business or Commercial letters
Official Letters
Covering Letters

Types of Business

Letters regarding Quotations, Offers and

Letters regarding Trade References
Letters regarding Agency
Circular Letters
Dunning or Collection Letters
Letters of Credits
Letters regarding Bank Transactions
Letters regarding Insurance
Letters of Clearing and Forwarding
Letters regarding Employment

Essential Characteristics Of A
Good Business Letter
Write naturally or Maintain

What Is A Good Letter?

Sell Goods and Services

Bring Back Lost Customers
Secure New Customers
Encourage Travelling Agents
Prepare the way for Travelling Agent
Stimulate Dealers
Create Goodwill
Collect Bad Debts
Adjust Complaints
Open New Market

Structure of Business
Inside name and Address
Opening Salutation
Body of the Letter
Complimentary Close or Subscription
Identification Mark

Sub-processes Of Writing
Pre-writing (Why, Who, What, When and How)
Writing (Shaping a skeleton and thinking about could be
shared and how)

Letter Head

All cover letters should:

Explain why you are sending a resume.

Don't send a resume without a cover letter.
Don't make the reader guess what you are asking for; be
specific: Do you want a summer internship opportunity, or a
permanent position at graduation; are you inquiring about
future employment possibilities?
Tell specifically how you learned about the position or the
organization a flyer posted in your department, a web site, a
family friend who works at the organization. It is appropriate
to mention the name of someone who suggested that you write.
Convince the reader to look at your resume.
The cover letter will be seen first.
Therefore, it must be very well written and targeted to that

All cover letters should:

Call attention to elements of your background education,
leadership, experience that are relevant to a position you
are seeking. Be as specific as possible, using examples.
Reflect your attitude, personality, motivation, enthusiasm, and
communication skills.
Provide or refer to any information specifically requested in a
job advertisement that might not be covered in your resume,
such as availability date, or reference to an attached writing
Indicate what you will do to follow-up.

All cover letters should:

In a letter of application

applying for an advertised opening

applicants often say something like "I look forward to hearing from
you." However, if you have further contact info (e.g. phone number)
and if the employer hasn't said "no phone calls," it's better to take the
initiative to follow-up, saying something like, "I will contact you in the
next two weeks to see if you require any additional information
regarding my qualifications."

In a letter of inquiry
asking about the possibility of an opening
don't assume the employer will contact you. You should say something
like, "I will contact you in two weeks to learn more about upcoming
employment opportunities with (name of organization)." Then mark
your calendar to make the call.

How to Write a Cover Letter in 5

Simple Steps
Step One:
Outline your cover letter on the blank screen. It should include
the following areas:
A heading with your name, address, telephone and email address
The date typed using a civilian format (July 1, 2010 rather than
1 Jul 10)
A salutation line using the correctly spelled name of a real
Space for three to four paragraphs
Sincerely, accompanied by five blank lines and then your name

How to Write a Cover Letter in 5

Simple Steps


In paragraph one, explain how you learned about the job opening, citing a specific
vacancy number if applicable and express your interest in it. If someone the reader
knows fondly recommended you apply for the job, name drop here.

In paragraph two, show specifically how what you have to offer in terms of
experience, skills and abilities matches what the employer is seeking. Dont be shy about
using the exact words found in the job vacancy announcement. In fact, comb through
that announcement with a highlighter and note the important buzzwords. Boldly use
them in your cover letter at this point. If you need to use a third paragraph here, go
ahead and do so. Just make sure any information you include is relevant and worthy of
In paragraph three (or four if you used two paragraphs above), close the letter out
proactively. Re-emphasize your interest in the position and your availability for an
interview. Note that you will contact the employer by a certain date if you havent heard
back from him first. Afterwards, make a note on your own personal calendar to follow

How to Write a Cover Letter in 5

Simple Steps

Step Three: Mind the details for a polished, professional appearance.

Maintain a one-inch margin on the top, bottom and sides of your
Use an easy-to-read font and size such as Times New Roman, 11 or 12
Avoid abuse of your formatting palette. Too many instances of bolding,
underlining and italicizing only detract from the content itself.
Keep your cover letter to one page only. Two or more pages are too
Do a spelling and grammar check using your computer and one using
your own set of eyes.
Avoid the use of worn out clichs in your letter. Use your own voice. Let
the employer get a glimpse of the real you.
Keep it original. Each time you apply for a different job, wordsmith it to
match the opening just as you would your resume.

How to Write a Cover Letter in 5

Simple Steps
Step four:
Set it aside for a few minutes. Get some fresh air. Take a
walk. Move on to other job search activities. After a few
minutes, go back to your cover letter and read it critically
with a fresh set of eyes. Make any revisions you deem
appropriate, save it and print it out if snail-mailing.

Step five:
Now you can send it out into world, along with your
perfectly crafted resume, with the confidence that it is
ready to take wings and lead you to the next step in the
process: the job interview.

Layout of Covering Letter Layout

John Smith
123 Abc Street
Another Town
WX45 6YZ
Mr. Firstname Surname
Post code
Dear Mr Surname,
Opening Paragraph
Second paragraph
Third paragraph
Fourth & final paragraph
Yours sincerely
John Smith
John Smith

Respected Sir


I have read your employment advertisement, and I am convinced that I could perform effectively in this position for you.

Conscientious, hardworking, and multi-talented are words that characterize the qualities that have made me an asset to my
employers. Over the course of my career I have managed personnel and resources in organizations ranging in size from 4
to 80 and know how to work independently while using my experience and judgment to respond to various situations. My
attention to detail, analytical expertise, and proficiency in preparing written reports have resulted in my receipt of
commendatory recognition from superiors and outside agencies. My ability to complete projects in a timely manner while
eliciting needed information for critical decision making was demonstrated when I successfully performed, in a 2-day
timeframe, a detailed audit of 180 records, most of which were in formats with which I was unfamiliar, and created a report
of discrepancies along with correct information. Additionally, as an intelligence officer, I excelled in conducting research
in both English and German and trained personnel in utilizing the same methods. I am adaptable to a variety of working
conditions and situations and am an effective communicatortalents which would make me an immediate contributor to
At your convenience, I hope to meet with you in person to discuss how my qualifications would meet your needs.

Thank you for your consideration.


16th July 2009

Mrs. M Foster,
Graduate Recruitment Manager,
Elsewhere Bank plc,
39 High Street,
Manchester. M2 1RS
Dear Mrs Foster
I was very interested to read your advertisement for a Graduate Trainee on the University of Kent
vacancy database as it precisely fits my career plans.
I first became interested in retail banking during an "Insight" course which I attended during my
second year at University. Since then, discussion with my careers adviser and my own research
have confirmed my belief that this is a career which will enable me to use not only my interest in
business and finance but also my skills in working with people, both in an advisory and a
managerial capacity.
I am particularly interested in a career with Elsewhere Bank, because of the high reputation of
your graduate training scheme, and your commitment to giving new recruits early responsibility.
During my time as a student I have had a variety of part-time and vacation jobs, all of which have
required me to work as part of a team and to deal directly with the public. I found my work at the
Tourist Information Office particularly valuable in teaching me the importance of ascertaining
customers' needs and providing clear and accurate information in response to those needs.
As part of my degree course, I chose to carry out a final-year project which involved a statistical
analysis of 150 questionnaires sent to local employers. To process this information, I taught
myself to set up and use a database and felt great satisfaction in completing this project well
ahead of the end-of-term deadline. Although my overall degree result was a 2.2., this particular
piece of work was awarded a high 2.1.
I will be available for interview at any time apart from the 12 - 24 August when I have arranged a
holiday in Italy. I look forward to hearing from you shortly and enclose my CV for your
Yours sincerely
John Andrews
John Andrews


Fully-Indented Style
Semi-Intended Style
Fully-Blocked Style
Modified-Blocked Style
The Hanging Paragraph Style
The NOMA(National Office of
Management Association of
America) Simplified Style

Fully-Indented Style

Semi-Intended Style

Fully-Blocked Style

Modified-Blocked Style

The Hanging Paragraph


The NOMA(National Office of

Management Association of America)
Simplified Style

Presentation can be defined as a
formal event characterized by
teamwork and use of audio-visual
aids. The main purpose of presentation
is to give information, to persuade the
audience to act and to create goodwill. A
good presentation should have a good
subject matter, should match with the
objective, should best fit the audience,
and should be well organized.

Characteristics of a Good/Effective
The presentation ideas should be well adapted to your audience.
Relate your presentation message/idea to the interests of the audience.
A detailed audience analysis must be made before the presentation,
i.e., an analysis of the needs, age, educational background, language,
and culture of the target audience. Their body language instantly
gives the speaker the required feedback.
A good presentation should be concise and should be focused on the
topic. It should not move off-track.
A good presentation should have the potential to convey the required
The fear should be transformed into positive energy during the
presentation. Be calm and relaxed while giving a presentation. Before
beginning, wait and develop an eye contact with the audience. Focus
on conveying your message well and use a positive body language.

Characteristics of a Good/Effective
To communicate the desired information, the speaker should use more
of visual aids such as transparencies, diagrams, pictures, charts, etc.
Each transparency/slide should contain limited and essential
information only. No slide should be kept on for a longer time. Try
facing the audience, rather than the screen. The speaker should not
block the view. Turn on the room lights else the audience might fall
asleep and loose interest. Organize all the visuals for making a logical
and sound presentation.
A good presentation must be planned. The speaker must plan how to
begin the presentation, what to speak in the middle of presentation
and how to end the presentation without losing audience interests at
any point of time.
Rehearse and practice the presentation. This will help the speaker to
be more confident and self-assured. The more the speaker rehearses
the better the presentation turns to be.

Characteristics of a Good/Effective

The speaker should encourage more questions from the audience. He should
be honest enough to answer those questions. If any biased question is put
forth by the audience, rearticulate it before answering.
Summarize the presentation at the end. Give final comments. Leave a
positive impact upon the audience.
The speaker must have a presentable appearance while giving a presentation.
The speaker should stand with feet far apart maintaining a good balance. He
must use confident gestures. He must use short and simple words.
Try to gain and maintain audience interest by using positive quotes, humour,
or remarkable fact.
The speaker must be affirmative and optimistic before giving presentation.
He should ensure all tools and equipments to be used in presentation are
working well.
The speaker must state the objectives of the presentation at beginning of the