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ELEMENTARY

STATISTICS

Chapter 11

Analysis of Variance

MARIO F. TRIOLA

EIGHTH

Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman

EDITION1

Chapter 11

Analysis of Variance
11-1 Overview
11-2 One-way ANOVA
11-3 Two-way ANOVA
Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman

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11-1

Overview

An introduction of a procedure for
testing the hypothesis that three or
more population means are equal.
For example:
H0: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = . . . µk
H1: At least one mean is different

Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman

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11-1

Overview

Definition
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
a method of testing the equality
of three or more population
means by analyzing sample
variations

Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman

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Triola. The values of F can be 0 or positive.ANOVA methods require the F-distribution 1. The F-distribution is not symmetric. it skewed to the right. Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001. 3. Addison Wesley Longman 5 . There is a different F-distribution for each pair of degrees of freedom for the numerator and denominator. they cannot be negative. Critical values of F are given in Table A-5 Chapter 11. is 2.

Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Copyright 2001.distribution Not symmetric (skewed to the right)  nonnegative values only Figure 11-1 Chapter 11. Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 6 .F . Elementary Statistics.

The different samples are from populations categorized in only one way. The populations have the same variance standard deviation  ). Elementary Statistics. The samples are independent of each other. The samples are simple random samples. Triola. 4. The populations have normal distributions. that are Chapter 11. Copyright 2001.11-2 One-Way ANOVA Assumptions 1. Addison Wesley Longman 7 . Section 11-1 and 11-2. 2.  2 (or 3. 5. Eighth Edition.

Definition Treatment (or factor) a property or characteristic that allows us to distinguish the different populations from another Use computer software or TI-83 Plus for ANOVA calculations if possible Chapter 11. Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 8 . Section 11-1 and 11-2. Copyright 2001. Triola. Elementary Statistics.

Triola. Addison Wesley Longman of 9 . 2. 1. Elementary Statistics. 3. Use STATDISK. . Section 11-1 and 11-2.Procedure for testing: H0: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = . Chapter 11. reject the null hypothesis of equal means. Form a conclusion based on these criteria:  If P-value  .  If P-value >  . Identify the P-value from the display. Copyright 2001. fail to reject the null hypothesis equal means. or a TI-83 Calulator to obtain results. Minitab. Excel. . Eighth Edition.

Addison Wesley Longman 10 . Copyright 2001. Triola. Elementary Statistics. Section 11-1 and 11-2.Relationships Among Components of ANOVA Figure 11-2 Chapter 11. Eighth Edition.

Copyright 2001. Triola.ANOVA Fundamental Concept Estimate the common value of  2 using 1. 2. The variance within samples (also called variation due to error) is an estimate of the common population variance  2 based on the sample variances. Eighth Edition. Chapter 11. The variance between samples (also called variation due to treatment) is an estimate of the common population variance  2 that is based on the variability among the sample means. Addison Wesley Longman 11 . Elementary Statistics. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Elementary Statistics. Triola. Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 12 .ANOVA Fundamental Concept Test Statistic for One-Way ANOVA Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Copyright 2001.

Triola. Addison Wesley Longman 13 . Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001. Section 11-1 and 11-2.ANOVA Fundamental Concept Test Statistic for One-Way ANOVA F= variance between samples variance within samples Chapter 11. Eighth Edition.

Addison Wesley Longman 14 .ANOVA Fundamental Concept Test Statistic for One-Way ANOVA F= variance between samples variance within samples A excessively large F test statistic is evidence against equal population means. Copyright 2001. Chapter 11. Triola. Eighth Edition. Elementary Statistics. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Copyright 2001.Calculations with Equal Sample Sizes Variance between samples = nsx2 Chapter 11. Addison Wesley Longman 15 . Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola. Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition.

Elementary Statistics.Calculations with Equal Sample Sizes Variance between samples = nsx2 where sx = variance of samples means 2 Chapter 11. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 16 . Eighth Edition. Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Elementary Statistics. Addison Wesley Longman 17 . Eighth Edition.Calculations with Equal Sample Sizes Variance between samples = nsx2 where sx = variance of samples means 2 2 Variance within samples = sp Chapter 11. Copyright 2001. Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Calculations with Equal Sample Sizes Variance between samples = nsx2 where sx = variance of samples means 2 2 Variance within samples = sp where sp = pooled variance (or the mean of the sample variances) 2 Chapter 11. Copyright 2001. Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 18 . Elementary Statistics. Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Critical Value of F Right-tailed test Degree of freedom with k samples of the same size n numerator df = k -1 denominator df = k(n -1) Chapter 11. Addison Wesley Longman 19 . Triola. Copyright 2001. Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Addison Wesley Longman 20 .1) Chapter 11. Eighth Edition. Triola.1)si2 (ni . Section 11-1 and 11-2.x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni . Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001.Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi .

x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni .Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi . Copyright 2001. Elementary Statistics. Triola. Addison Wesley Longman 21 .1)si2 (ni .1) where x = mean of all sample scores combined Chapter 11. Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Copyright 2001.1) where x = mean of all sample scores combined k = number of population means being compared Chapter 11.Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi .1)si2 (ni . Triola. Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Elementary Statistics. Addison Wesley Longman 22 .x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni .

Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 23 . Elementary Statistics.x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni . Section 11-1 and 11-2.1) where x = mean of all sample scores combined k = number of population means being compared ni = number of values in the ith sample Chapter 11. Triola.1)si2 (ni .Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi . Copyright 2001.

1) where x = mean of all sample scores combined k = number of population means being compared ni = number of values in the ith sample xi = mean values in the ith sample Chapter 11. Copyright 2001. Triola. Addison Wesley Longman 24 .x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni . Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Elementary Statistics.Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi .1)si2 (ni .

1)si2 (ni . Addison Wesley Longman 25 .1) where x = mean of all sample scores combined k = number of population means being compared ni = number of values in the ith sample xi = mean values in the ith sample 2 si = variance of values in the ith sample Chapter 11.x)2 F= variance within samples = variance between samples k -1 (ni .Calculations with Unequal Sample Sizes ni(xi . Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola. Eighth Edition.

Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition. Addison Wesley Longman 26 . Triola. Copyright 2001.Key Components of ANOVA Method Chapter 11. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 27 .Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(total). Elementary Statistics. or total sum of squares. Eighth Edition. Triola. Chapter 11. is a measure of the total variation (around x) in all the sample data combined. Section 11-1 and 11-2.

Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola.Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(total). Eighth Edition. is a measure of the total variation (around x) in all the sample data combined. or total sum of squares. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 28 . SS(total) = (x .x) 2 Formula 11-1 Chapter 11. Elementary Statistics.

Triola. Eighth Edition. In one-way ANOVA. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 29 . Elementary Statistics. Section 11-1 and 11-2.Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(treatment) is a measure of the variation between the samples. Because it is a measure of variability between the sample means. SS(treatment) is sometimes referred to as SS(factor). it is also referred to as SS (between groups) or SS (between samples). Chapter 11.

x)2 Formula 11-2 = ni(xi . SS(treatment) = n1(x1 . . Eighth Edition.x)2 + n2(x2 . Addison Wesley Longman 30 . In one-way ANOVA. it is also referred to as SS (between groups) or SS (between samples). Copyright 2001. SS(treatment) is sometimes referred to as SS(factor). Triola. .x)2 Chapter 11. Because it is a measure of variability between the sample means. nk(xk .x)2 + . Section 11-1 and 11-2.Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(treatment) is a measure of the variation between the samples. Elementary Statistics.

Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2.Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(error) is a sum of squares representing the variability that is assumed to be common to all the populations being considered. Elementary Statistics. Chapter 11. Addison Wesley Longman 31 . Triola. Copyright 2001.

Addison Wesley Longman 32 .Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(error) is a sum of squares representing the variability that is assumed to be common to all the populations being considered. Triola. 2 2 2 SS(error) = (n1 -1)s1 + (n2 -1)s2 + (n3 -1)s3 . nk(xk -1)si 2 = (ni . Copyright 2001. Section 11-1 and 11-2. .1)si 2 Formula 11-3 Chapter 11. Elementary Statistics. . Eighth Edition.

Addison Wesley Longman 33 . Elementary Statistics.Key Components of ANOVA Method SS(total) = SS(treatment) + SS(error) Formula 11-4 Chapter 11. Triola. Copyright 2001. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Eighth Edition.

Mean Squares (MS) Sum of Squares SS(treatment) and SS(error) divided by corresponding number of degrees of freedom. Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. obtained as follows: Chapter 11. Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Addison Wesley Longman 34 . MS (treatment) is mean square for treatment. Elementary Statistics.

MS (treatment) is mean square for treatment. Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition. Section 11-1 and 11-2.Mean Squares (MS) Sum of Squares SS(treatment) and SS(error) divided by corresponding number of degrees of freedom. Copyright 2001. obtained as follows: MS (treatment) = SS (treatment) k-1 Formula 11-5 Chapter 11. Addison Wesley Longman 35 . Triola.

Addison Wesley Longman 36 . Triola. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. obtained as follows: Chapter 11.Mean Squares (MS) MS (error) is mean square for error.

Addison Wesley Longman 37 . obtained as follows: MS (error) = SS (error) N-k Formula 11-6 Chapter 11.Mean Squares (MS) MS (error) is mean square for error. Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001. Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola. Eighth Edition.

Section 11-1 and 11-2. Elementary Statistics. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 38 . Eighth Edition. Triola.Mean Squares (MS) MS (error) is mean square for error. obtained as follows: MS (error) = SS (error) N-k Formula 11-6 MS (total) = SS (total) N-1 Formula 11-7 Chapter 11.

Section 11-1 and 11-2.Test Statistic for ANOVA with Unequal Sample Sizes Chapter 11. Eighth Edition. Elementary Statistics. Triola. Addison Wesley Longman 39 . Copyright 2001.

Triola. Addison Wesley Longman 40 . Section 11-1 and 11-2.Test Statistic for ANOVA with Unequal Sample Sizes F= MS (treatment) MS (error) Chapter 11. Elementary Statistics. Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001.

Elementary Statistics.Test Statistic for ANOVA with Unequal Sample Sizes F= MS (treatment) MS (error) Formula 11-8 df = k -1  Denominator df = N . Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 41 . Section 11-1 and 11-2. Triola.k  Numerator Chapter 11.