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English 11th & 12th
Mr. Ruben Fuentes
Academia Santo Tomás de
Aquino Superior

“The more that you read, the more
things you will know. The more that
you learn, the more places you'll go.”
Dr. Seuss

Specific Objectives
The students will be able to:
1. Identify and define the elements of the short story and
the novel:

a. Title
b. Plot
c. Conflict
d. Action
e. Suspense

f. Endings
g. Settings
h. Characterization
i. Point of view
j. Theme

2. Identify the introduction. 5. Determine the plot of a short story or a novel. Determine and explain the setting in a given short story or novel. 3. Determine and explain the type of conflict in a given short story or novel. climax and ending when given a short story or a novel. 4. .

Basic story elements ENGLISH 11TH & 12TH Mr. Ruben Fuentes Velez Academia Santo Tomás de Aquino Superior .

6 .Short Story • A prose narrative too brief to be published in a separate volume. • It is usually focused narrative that presents one or two main characters involved in a single compelling action.as novella and novels frequently are.

• Aims to present a specific aspect of life or of conduct. .Short Story characteristics • Brief and concentrated. • Has a structure that readers can follow easily.

• single plot • few characters • short period of time • quick ending 8 .

9 . • Gives you an idea of what the story is about.Title • Is an important part of the story. • May point to the basic idea or to a symbol. • May focus the attention upon the central character. • May give a clue to writer’s purpose.

• It is related to the narrator’s point of view. • Time and place contribute to the atmosphere of the story. • It may introduced at the beginning of the story.Settings • Stories have to take place somewhere. 10 .

or all. may be present in a story): • • • • • Place Time Weather conditions Social conditions Mood or atmosphere 11 .• The time and location in which a story takes place • For some stories – the setting is very important – for others it is not • Several aspects to consider how setting contributes to a story – (some.

the reader endows the fictional character with moral. 12 .Character • By convention. • What a character says and does in any particular situation is motivated by his or her desires. temperament and moral nature.the action. dispositional and emotional qualities expressed in what the character says –the dialogue.by what he or she does.

protagonists The good guys .

antagonists The bad guys .

Protagonists vs antagonists .

• The description of the personalities of the characters in the story and the way in which an author reveals their personalities. . reveal. or develop the characters in a narrative.CHARACTERIZATION • The technique a writer uses to create.

Examples of characterization .

middle. and end – Short stories usually have one plot so it can be read in one sitting – There are five essential parts of plot .Plot • Name given to a particular structure that many stories have. logical series of events having a beginning. • How the author arranges events to develop his basic idea – The sequence of events in a story or play – A planned. • Many stories do not have a plot.

• Is the sequence of events in which each event results from a previous one and causes the next. 19 .

Development. 20 . 3.Exposition . 5. Falling action or end of the central conflict. The climax is a high point of suspense. 2.the conflict increases until it reaches the climax 4.Plot order 1.Inciting incident – introduces the central conflict.introduces the setting character and the basic situation.

21 . SOME PLOTS DO NOT HAVE ALL THESE PARTS.Any events that occur during the falling action make up the resolution or denouement.

Setting 22 . Basic Situation 2.Plot structure isin gA cti De ve lop me nt/ R n tio Ac Exposition g llin Fa on Climax Inciting incident/Conflict Resolution 1. Characters 3.

conclusion that reader does not expect .interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past  Surprise Ending.Special Techniques of Plot  Suspense.excitement or tension  Foreshadowing.hint or clue about what will happen in story  Flashback.

or concept larger than itself. • Water may represent cleanliness and renewal • A red rose can represent love.Symbolism A symbol represents an idea. . quality. • A journey can symbolize life • A lion can be a symbol of courage.

like giving the reader a memory). This device is often used to provide additional information to the reader. .Flashback This is a writers’ technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time (goes back in time.

It’s like the music in a scary movie when we know that something bad is about to happen. .Foreshadowing This is a writers’ technique in which the author provides clues or hints as to what is going to happen later in the story.

from which a story is told.Point of View • Is the perspective or vantage point.the narrator is the character. Limited third person point of view – the narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character and everything is viewed from this character’s perspective . Three types of point of view First person point of view. (I) Omniscient third person point of view – the narrator knows and tells about what each character feels and thinks.

etc • reader sees the story through this person's eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels. • First Person – story told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters • using pronouns I.Point of View • Innocent Eye – story told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult) • Stream of Consciousness – story told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions. me. we. 28 .

feelings and motivations of his characters and  introduces information where and when he chooses  There are two main types of omniscient point of view:  Omniscient Limited author tells story in third person (using pronouns they. and recording only what is seen and heard There is no comment on the characters or their thoughts No interpretations are offered The reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain The reader has to interpret events on his own. 29 . having free access to the thoughts. it.  We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us. We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. he. going anywhere.Omniscient Point Of View  Omniscient  author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view  moves from character to character.  Omniscient Objective author tells story in the third person It appears as though a camera is following the characters. etc). she. event to event.

– Symbol – Simile – Hyperbole Allusion Metaphor irony 30 .Theme • is the controlling idea or central insight • is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey • may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view of human nature • title of the short story usually points to what the writer is saying • author may use various figures of speech to emphasize his theme.

concern. or insight into life expressed through a literary work Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life May be stated directly or implied Interpretation uncovers the theme 31 .A central message.

and film – things are not always as they appear to be – Love is blind – Believe in yourself – People are afraid of change – Don't judge a book by its cover .Examples of Theme • Some simple examples of common themes from literature. TV.

Thanks for your attention! 33 .