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H azard:
 Any condition w hich has the

potentialto cause injury or harm to

Types ofhazards
 Chem icalhazards
 Physicalhazards
 Biologic hazards
 Ergonom ic hazards
 Psychologicalhazards

Chem icalhazards  Excessive airborne concentrations of vapors.or m ists. or aerosols in the form of dusts. fum es. . gases.

Physicalhazards  Excessive levels of ionizing and non ionizing radiation.  N oise  vibration  extrem es of tem perature and pressure .

Biologic hazards  Infection by insects  m olds  fungi  bacterial  viral  rickettsial  Chlam ydia agents .

.Ergonom ic hazards  Im properly designed tools. equipm ent.or w ork areas  unusualand unnecessary lifting or reaching  poor visualconditions  excessive vibration  repeated forcefulm otions in aw kw ard postures.

Psychologicalhazards  Inadequate com m unication  Interpersonalconfl ict  confl ict w ith organizationalgoal  lack of prom otionalopportunity  inadequate resources to accom plish job  inadequate authority to accom plish job  w ork overload / under load  shift w ork .

The requirements for a safety system (Hawkles. m aintenance and m anagem ent of the facilities and equipm ent  Staf f n g m ust be provided in suf f i cient num bers and w ith i appropriate supervision and training  system m ust be im plem ented w hich prom ptly identify em ergency situations and m easures w hich m itigate the risk  system m ust be develop w hich m onitor the risk m anagem ent perform ance of em ployees and audit the risk m anagem ent system s and perform ance  risk m anagem ent m ust be prom ote throughout the organization .1987)  M anagem ent m ust know of the hazards of the institution and understand how hazards can give rise to accidents and understand the consequences  facilities and equipm ent m ust be suitable for avoiding dangerous situations and for controlling hazards  system s and procedures m ust be provided for operation.

H azard risk m anagem ent:  The interaction process used by an organization to identifi ed. . evaluate and controlhazards to reduce the risk of injury The Benefits of Risk Management o Reduction in M aterialand Property D am age. o Reduction in Serious Injuries and Fatalities. o Eff ective M ission Accom plishm ent.

G am b lin g : M aking Risk D ecisions W ithout Reasonable or Prudent Assessm ent or M anagem ent of the Risk Involved . H AZARD S and Estim ate the Risk they Pose.RISK : AN EXPRESSIO N O F PO SSIBLE LO SS IN TERM S O F SEVERITY AN D PRO BABILITY H azard risk m an ag em en t : U sing sound concepts to D etect.

Four steps in the m anagem ent ofhazards  Risk identifi cation  Risk evaluation  Risk Assessm ent  Risk controland M onitoring (M anagem ent strategies) .

Risk identifi cation  The process of recognizing the presence of hazards  The m ost im portant step in the w hole process because if the hazards are not identifi ed and assessed. one of the m ost eff ective and cheapest w ays to im prove safety for the institution is to introduce inherent safety in the design process . then the safety system w illbe lacking.  O nce the hazards are identifi ed.

Risk identifi cation requires :  H istoricaldata  Scientifi c literature  W orkplace inspections / safety audits  H azards analysis .

accidents/incidents o injuries/fatalities o contributing factors e.g.g. design/equipm ent .H istoricaldata o Past statisticaldata o event e.

O SH A etc.Scientifi c literatures  M aterialSafety D ata Sheets (M SD S)  N ational/provincialinjury statistic  Bulletins/ journals from the internationalO ccupationalSafety and H ealth associations (N IO SH .ACG IH . AIH A.)  Standards and codes .

insurance com pany loss control representatives.m achinery.W orkplace inspection  D irect observation (equipm ent. chem icalinventories. line m anager. training program s/ hazard controls)  discussion w ith em ployees. the physicalplant. health and safety representative. supervisors. em ployer.  em ployee questionnaire  checklist . processes/ procedures.

H azard analysis  Prelim inary H azard Analysis (PH A)  W h at if Analysis  Failure M ode and Eff ects Analysis(FM EA)  The InternationalAtom ic Energy Agency (IAEA) Analysis  Fault Tree Analysis & Even Tree Analysis  M anagem ent O versight & Risk Tree (M O RT) .

“W hat if “analysis : The unloading ofchem icalfrom a road tankerto a storage tank  W hat if … … … … … .  The chem icalis the w rong concentration?  the tank overfl ow ed?  the tank valve w as closed?  the delivery hose com e off ?  the tanker driver drove offw ith the hose stillattached?  the chem icalfl ow ed back into the tanker ? .

A PH A for a road tanker loading fl am m able liquids at a fi lling station Hazard Possible Causes Spill of flammable Tanker overfill liquid Filling hose failure Driver uncouples Hose which still Contains liquid Driver drives off Whilst still connected Possible Consequence Mitigating/ Prevention Measures Spillage of which can lead to a pool fire if ignited Tanker overfill protection Regular inspection of hoses Training of truck drivers Brake interlocks for the truck to prevent driveaways .

FM EA table for these failure m odes for a pum p w hich unloads LPG from the storage tank at the station to the pum p Failure mode Detection method Equipment affected Pump stops No fuel at pump Can hear the pump continuously running LPG release None Pump runs on Pump casing holed Safety system response Pumpset Phone gas company Possible ignition and jet Fire and BLEVE -excess flow valve on tank could operate -manual /automatic shut down -evacuate area Comments System can handle this Not critical Critical – Immediate Action required .

Risk Evaluation  m easurem ent of potentialexposures  determ ining existing controls  consequences of these risk  probability and frequency of risk occurring  exposure category .

noise dosim eter) .M easurem ent ofpotentialexposure  Air m onitoring (personalbreathing zone sam pling. area m onitoring)  N oise exposure evaluation (sound levelm eter.




but never the less is in violation of specific criteria .CATASTROPHIC  II .Consequences of the risk  I .NEGLIGIBLE  may cause death or loss of a facility  severe occupational illness or major property damage  minor occupational illness resulting in loss workdays or minor property damage  probably would not affect personnel safety.MARGINAL  IV.CRITICAL  III.

Probability and frequency risk occurring  [ A ] Likely to occurring im m ediately or w ithin a short period of tim e w hen exposed to the hazard  [ B ] Probably w illoccur in tim e  [ C ] Possible to occur in tim e  [ D ] U nlikely to occur .

Exposure category  ( 1 ) > 50 diff erent person regularly exposed to the hazard  ( 2 ) 10 .9 ( 4 ) < 5 .49 ( 3 ) 5 .

Risk assessm ent  Prioritizing risks w hich is an integral part of the risk m anagem ent process  com pare against risk criteria  balance the benefi ts/ disbenefi ts of allow ing the risk against the benefi ts/disbenefi ts of risk control .

high im pact .specify risk m anagem ent m easures .accept .low likelihood and high im pact. and vice versa  M ajor risk .Prioritizing risk  M inor risk .develop risk action plan .high likelihood.low likelihood. low im pact  M oderate risk .

M AKE RISK D ECISIO N S  Consider Risk Control Options  Start with Most Serious Risk First  Refer to preliminary Hazard Analysis Causes  Does Benefit Outweigh Risk  Communicate with Higher Authority  if Required .

Substitute the hazard Replace one chemical with another which is less harmful . local & general/ dilution exhaust) .R ISK C O N TR O LS  Administrative Controls good house keeping.Isolate the hazard (apply physical barriers. identify residual risk  Engineering Controls .Minimize the potential error (minimize energies. use warning devise)  Personal Protective Equipment . safe work procedure. enclose all stage of process) .Remove chemical from process (wet method .


SU P ER V ISE  Monitor for Effectiveness of Controls  Watch for Changes .

Risk m anagem ent im plem entation  Management commitment  Written policy  OH&S Committee  Communicate the policy  Manage risks at the organization level  Manage risks at the program. project and team level  Monitor and review .