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. It helps us in understanding the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history.ANTHROPOLOGY The study of humans. past and present. A central concern of anthropology is the application of knowledge to the solution of human problems. Anthropology draws and builds upon knowledge from the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences.

education. agriculture and development. with a special interest in how people live in particular places and how they organize. which involves placing oneself in the research context for extended periods of time to gain a first-hand sense of how local knowledge is put to work in grappling with practical problems of everyday life and with basic philosophical problems of knowledge. and its attention to race.SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY:  Sociocultural anthropology examine social patterns and practices across cultures.  A hallmark of sociocultural anthropology is its concern with similarities and differences. class. and justice. ecology and environment.  Topics of concern to sociocultural anthropology include such areas as health. govern. and social change. . work. gender. sexuality. and create meaning. both within and among societies. truth. power. and nationality  Research in sociocultural anthropology is distinguished by its emphasis on participant observation.

BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLGY : Biological anthropology seek to understand how humans adapt to diverse environments. growth and development) and genetics of living populations.. development and behaviour. our place in nature.  To understand these processes. hormones. and what causes disease and early death. They give primary attention to investigating questions having to do with evolutionary theory. evolution and variation.g.  In addition. prehistoric people (bio archaeology). health. adaptation and human biological variation. . biological anthropology study the fossil record (pale anthropology). and the biology (e. they are interested in human biological origins. how biological and cultural processes work together to shape growth.

archaeology is a comparative discipline. . ideologies. ranging from artefacts and evidence of past environments to architecture and landscapes. Like other areas of anthropology. such as pottery. and remains of structures. is examined . animal bone. but also recognizes that every society is the product of its own particular history and that within every society there are commonalities as well as variation.  Material evidence. subsistence patterns. from the deepest prehistory to the recent past.ARCHAEOLOGY : Archaeology is the study of past peoples and cultures. to address such topics as the formation of social groupings. through the analysis of material remains. stone tools. and interaction with the environment. it assumes basic human continuities over time and place.

and social change. particularly as these are constructed and represented through language and discourse. inequality.Linguistic anthropology : Linguistic anthropology is the comparative study of ways in which language reflects and influences social life. organize large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies. equip people with common cultural representations of their natural and social worlds. formulate categories of social identity and group membership. Linguistic anthropology shares with anthropology in general a concern to understand power. and.  It explores the many ways in which language practices define patterns of communication. .

and mental health. It also examines how the understanding of . language. . and similar psychological processes inform or constrain our models of cultural and social processes. practices. motivation.  This subfield tends to focus on ways in which humans' development and enculturation within a particular cultural group— with its own history. motivation. perception. emotion.Different types of anthropology are : Psychological anthropology: Psychological anthropology is an interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. and conceptual categories— shape processes of emotion.

linguists and other specialists engaged in the description and interpretation of cultural forms. . and transmission over time and space using the methods and theories of the cognitive sciences (especially experimental psychology and evolutionary biology) often through close collaboration with historians. archaeologists.Cognitive anthropology : Cognitive anthropology seeks to explain patterns of shared knowledge. cultural innovation. Cognitive anthropology is concerned with what people from different groups know and how that implicit knowledge changes the way people perceive and relate to the world around them.

"the study of relationships between a population of humans and their biophysical environment“. The sub-field is also defined as." . The focus of its research concerns "how cultural beliefs and practices helped human populations adapt to their environments.Ecological anthropology: Ecological anthropology is defined as the "study of cultural adaptations to environments“. and how people used elements of their culture to maintain their ecosystems.

politics and power. and to prevent corporate exploitation and damage of land. The focus and data interpretation is often used for arguments for/against or creation of policy. globalization. Many characterize this new perspective as more informed with culture. and more. . localized issues.Environmental anthropology: Environmental anthropology is a sub-specialty within the field of anthropology that takes an active role in examining the relationships between humans and their environment across space and time.

photography. museum collections. enduring customs. music. archaeological materials. and place names. . It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not exist today. paintings. Practitioners recognize the utility of such source material as maps. site exploration. language.Historical anthropology: Ethno history is the study of ethnographic cultures and indigenous customs by examining historical records. oral tradition. Ethno history uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. Its historical methods and materials go beyond the standard use of documents and manuscripts.

behavioral ecology. drawing on many lines of evidence to understand the human experience. Evolutionary anthropology is concerned with both biological and cultural evolution of humans.Evolutionary anthropology: Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behavior Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science. primatology.  It is a dynamic and interdisciplinary field. and brings together fields such as archaeology.  It is based on a scientific approach. past and present. . psychology. and genetics. past and present. combining the human development with socioeconomic factors.