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Myers’ Psychology for AP

*

David G. Myers

PowerPoint Presentation Slides
by Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Worth Publishers, © 2010
*AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

Unit 9:
Developmental Psychology

Unit Overview





Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Infancy and Childhood
Parents and Peers
Adolescence
Adulthood
Reflections on Two Major
Devel
opmental Issues

Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

Introduction • Developmental psychology – Nature versus nurture – Continuity and stages – Stability and change .

Prenatal Development and the Newborn .

Prenatal Development • Conception • Zygote • Embryo • Fetus .

Prenatal Development and the Newborn Life is sexually transmitted .

Prenatal Development and the Newborn 40 days months 45 days 2 months 4 .

Prenatal Development and the Newborn .

Prenatal Development • Placenta • Teratogens • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) .

The Competent Newborn • Reflexes – Rooting – Moro – Babinski – Palmer Grasp • Habituation • Novelty-preference procedure .

Prenatal Development and the Newborn  Preferences  human voices and faces  facelike images-->  smell and sound of mother preferred .

Infancy Childhood .

Physical Development Brain Development • Brain development • Pruning process • Maturation .

Physical Development Motor Development • Motor development – Learning to walk .

Physical Development Maturation and Infant Memory • Infantile amnesia – no memories before age three .

Cognitive Development • Cognition • Jean Piaget – Schema – Assimilation – Accommodation .

out of mind” .Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Sensorimotor Stage – Object permanence • “out of sight.

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Sensorimotor Stage – Object permanence • “out of sight. out of mind” .

out of mind” .Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Sensorimotor Stage – Object permanence • “out of sight.

Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development • Babies are Stupid .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Preoperational Stage – Conservation .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Preoperational Stage – Conservation .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Preoperational Stage – Conservation .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Egocentrism .

Conservation .

Cognitive Development • Concrete Operational Stage .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Formal Operational Stage – Abstract concepts .

Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking .

Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking .

.e. come before) development.Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking • Theory of Mind • Lev Vygotsky – social learning tends to precede (i.

Cognitive Development Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory • • • • Influential theory Development is more continuous Larger emphasis on social factors Vygotsky – Zone of proximal development • difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. • Dancing .

Cognitive Development • Autism .

Social Development Origins of Attachment • Attachment – Body contact • Harry Harlow’s studies – Familiarity • Critical period • Imprinting – Konrad Lorenz • Sensitive period .

Social Development Attachment Differences: Temperament and Parenting • Mary Ainsworth’s “strange situation” – Secure attachment – Insecure attachment – Disorganized Attachment .

Social Development • Stranger anxiety .

olds • Intense preschoolers – intense adults • Erikson’s Basic trust – Securely attached children – basic trust . difficult & slow to warm up babies • Fearful 2 yr.Social Development Attachment Differences: Temperament and Parenting • Temperament – Easy. olds – shy 8 yr.

yes .Social Development Deprivation of Attachment • Early deprivation of attachment – Leaves trauma to the brain • Disruption of attachment – Trauma – can recover if put in good environment • Does day care affect attachment? – High quality – no / poor quality .

Social Development Self-Concept • Self-concept – Self-esteem – Self-awareness .

Social Development Parenting Styles • Parenting styles (Baumrind) – Authoritarian – Permissive – Authoritative • Correlation versus causation .

authoritative .Social Development Culture and Child-Rearing • Differences in child-rearing from culture to culture – Western – independent – Eastern – compliant – Key – warm.

Social Development • Erik Erikson – 8 Ages of Man – 8 stages – Social task to complete – Creates a crisis – Resolve the crisis .

Industry vs. Trust vs. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toilet Training Locomotor – 3 to 6 yrs. to 3 yrs. Mistrust Feeding Muscular – Anal – 18 mos. Initiative vs. Guilt Independent Play Latency – 6 to 12 yrs. Inferiority School .Erik Erikson’s 8 Ages of Man Stage Name & Ages Social Crisis Developmental Task Oral-Sensory – Birth to 18 mo.

Parents and Peers .

Parents and Early Experiences • Experience and brain development .

Parents and Early Experiences • How much credit (or blame) do parents deserve? • Parents .important for education. orderliness. and interacting with authority figures. charitableness. responsibility. . discipline.

important for learning cooperation. inventing styles of interaction among peers . finding popularity.Peer Influence • Peer influence • Peers.

Adolescence .

Introduction • Adolescence .

Physical Development • Puberty – Primary sexual characteristics • menarche – Secondary sexual characteristics – Timing of sexual characteristics .

Physical Development

Physical Development

Cognitive Development
Developing Reasoning Power
• Piaget’s formal operations

the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world. .Cognitive Development Developing Morality Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder Postconventional level Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles Conventional level Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval Preconventional level Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards  As moral development progresses.

Social Development • Forming an identity – Identity – Social identity – Intimacy • Parent and peer relationships .

Identity vs. Inferiority School Adolescence – 12 to 18 yrs. Shame & Doubt Toilet Training Locomotor – 3 to 6 yrs. Mistrust Feeding Muscular – Anal – 18 mos. Initiative vs. Autonomy vs. To 3 yrs. Role Confusion Identity Formation/ Peer Relationships . Guilt Independent Play Latency – 6 to 12 yrs. Industry vs.Erik Erikson’s 8 Ages of Man Stage Name & Ages Social Crisis Developmental Task Oral-Sensory – Birth to 18 mo. Trust vs.

Emerging Adulthood • Emerging adulthood .

Adulthood .

Physical Development • Physical changes in middle adulthood – Menopause • Physical changes in later life – Life expectancy – Sensory abilities – Health – Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease .

54 Steve Davis 55 .23 11.80 13.90 .60 15.64 Randall Olson 65 .59 Terry Bradshaw 60 .50 13.90 14.90 16.69 James Wagner 70 .Adulthood: Physical Development • • • • • • • • • 1   1   1 • • • • 1   1 1   1 Jeff Hegeman 50 .79 Elmer Murman over 80 11.74 Lee Alexander 75 .

Physical Development Adulthood’s Ages and Stages .

Cognitive Development Aging and Memory • Recall versus recognition • Prospective memory .

Cognitive Development Aging and Intelligence • Cross-Sectional Evidence – Cross-sectional study • Longitudinal Evidence – Longitudinal study • It all depends – Crystallized intelligence – Fluid intelligence .

Adulthood: Cognitive Development Reasoning ability score 60 Cross-sectional method suggests decline 55 50 45 Longitudinal method suggests more stability 40 35 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81 Age in years Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method .

70 . or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West. twice.Adulthood: Cognitive Development 100 Percent 90 of names recalled 80 Older age groups have poorer performance 70 60 50 40 After two introductions 30 20 After one 10 introductions 0 18 40 50 60 Age group  Recalling new names After three introduced introductions once. 1990).

Number of words the ability to recall recognized is new information stable with age declined during early and middle Number of words adulthood. 20 30 40 50 Age in years 60 70 . but the recalled declines ability to recognize with age new information did not.Adulthood: Cognitive Development Number 24 Of words remembered 20 16 12 8 4 0  In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966).

Adulthood. 1989). while nonverbal intelligence scores decline 70 (adapted from Kaufman & others. .Cognitive Development Intelligence (IQ) score 105 Verbal scores are stable with age 100 95 90 85 Nonverbal scores decline with age 80 75 20 25 Verbal scores Nonverbal scores 35 45 Age group 55 65  Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age.

Social Development Adulthood’s Ages and Stages • Midlife transition • Social clock .

Trust vs. Autonomy vs. Intimacy vs. Generativity vs. Isolation Love Relationships Middle Adulthood 40 – 65 yrs. Role Confusion Identity Formation/ Peer Relationships Young Adulthood 19 to 40 yrs. Guilt Independent Play Latency – 6 to 12 yrs. Industry vs. Stagnation Parenting . Inferiority School Adolescence – 12 to 18 yrs. Shame & Doubt Toilet Training Locomotor – 3 to 6 yrs. Initiative vs. To 3 yrs.Erik Erikson’s 8 Ages of Man Stage Name & Ages Social Crisis Developmental Task Oral-Sensory – Birth to 18 mo. Identity vs. Mistrust Feeding Muscular – Anal – 18 mos.

Social Development Adulthood Commitments • Love • Work .

Social Development Well-Being Across the Life Span • Well-being across the life span • Death and dying .

Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging .

Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging .

Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging .

Biopsychosocial Influences on Successful Aging .

Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues .

Three Major Developmental Issues • Nature versus nurture • Continuity and stages • Stability and change .

Continuity and Stages .

Continuity and Stages .

Continuity and Stages .

Continuity and Stages .

The End .

Gender Development • Gender – Influences on social development .

Gender Development Gender Similarities and Differences • Gender and aggression – Aggression • Physical versus relational aggression • Gender and social power • Gender and social connectedness .

Gender Development The Nature of Gender • Sex chromosomes – X chromosome – Y chromosome • Sex hormones – Testosterone .

Gender Development The Nurture of Gender • Gender Role – Role • Gender and child rearing – Gender identity – Gender typing • Social learning theory .

Gender Development The Nurture of Gender .

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students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. etc.k12.k12. • By presenting information in small chunks. • By continually changing slides. Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown. suggestions. • Please feel free to contact me at kkorek@germantown.wi. These are included for three purposes. • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. students will stay interested in the presentation.us with any questions.us . regarding these presentations. usually of graphics or tables. WI 53022 262-253-3400 kkorek@germantown.Teacher Information • Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides. that build on one another. concerns.wi. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.

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Definition Slides .

cognitive.Developmental Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies physical. and social change throughout the life span. .

.Zygote = the fertilized egg. it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

Embryo = the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. .

.Fetus = the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

such as chemicals and viruses. that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. .Teratogens = agents.

symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) = physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases. .

Habituation
= decreasing responsiveness with repeated
stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with
repeated exposure to a visual stimulus,
their interest wanes and they look away
sooner.

Maturation
= biological growth processes that enable
orderly changes in behavior, relatively
uninfluenced by experience.

Cognition
= all mental activities associated with
thinking, knowing, remembering, and
communicating.

Schema = a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. .

.Assimilation = interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

Accommodation = adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. .

.Sensorimotor Stage = in Piaget’s theory. the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

.Object Permanence = the awareness that things continue to exist when not perceived.

the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. .Preoperational Stage = in Piaget’s theory..

Conservation = the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass. and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. . volume.

. the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.Egocentrism = in Piaget’s theory.

and the behaviors these might predict. .Theory of Mind = people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings. perceptions. and thoughts.

.Concrete Operational Stage = in Piaget’s theory. the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.Formal Operational Stage = in Piaget’s theory. .

. social interaction.Autism = a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication. and understanding of other’s states of mind.

beginning by about 8 months of age.Stranger Anxiety = the fear of strangers that infants commonly display. .

shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. .Attachment = an emotional tie with another person.

.Critical Period = an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

.Imprinting = the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

Temperament = a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. .

Basic Trust = according to Erik Erikson. said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. .

.Self-concept = our understanding and evaluation of who we are.

Gender = in psychology. . the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

.Aggression = physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.

. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. males have one.X Chromosome = the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes.

When paired with an X chromosome from the mother. . it produces a male child.Y Chromosome =the sex chromosome found only in males.

. but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. Both males and females have it.Testosterone = the most important of the male sex hormones.

Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position. . defining how those in the position ought to behave.

.Gender Role = a set of unexpected behaviors for males or for females.

Gender Identity = our sense of being male or female. .

.Gender Typing = the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

Social Learning Theory = the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. .

Adolescence = the transition period from childhood to adulthood. extending from puberty to independence. .

. during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.Puberty = the period of sexual maturation.

. testes.Primary Sexual Characteristics = the body structures (ovaries. and external genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible.

such as female breasts and hips. and body hair. .Secondary Sex Characteristics = nonreproductive sexual characteristics. male voice quality.

.Menarche = the first menstrual period.

according to Erikson. .Identity = our sense of self. the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships.Social Identify = the “we” aspect of our self-concept. .

.Intimacy = in Erikson’s theory. a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood. loving relationships. the ability to form close.

bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.Emerging Adulthood = for some people in modern cultures. a period from the late teens to mid-twenties. .

also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines. .Menopause = the time of natural cessation of menstruation.

Cross-sectional Study
= a study in which people of different ages
are compared with one another.

Longitudinal Study
= research in which the same people are
restudied and retested over a long period.

Crystallized Intelligence
= our accumulated knowledge and verbal
skills; tends to increase with age.

. tends to decrease during late adulthood.Fluid Intelligence = our ability to reason speedily and abstractly.

and retirement. . parenthood.Social Clock = the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage.