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Introduction to

Programmable Logic

Akram Hossain, Professor,
Purdue University Calumet
Hammond, IN 46323

A Hossain/August 24 2010


Definition of PLC

Programmable Logic Controllers are solid
state devices that can be programmed to
performed sequential and discrete state
operation on external equipment

They are designed to perform the logic
functions previously accomplished by
electromechanical relays, drum switches,
mechanical and electronic timers and
counters, standalone digital PID controllers
A Hossain/August 24 2010


Major Manufacturer of PLC

Allen-Bradley (AB)
General Electric
Texas Instruments

 Siemens

A Hossain/August 24 2010


Areas of PLC Applications Annunciators Auto Insertion Bagging Baking Blending Boring Brewing Calendaring Casting Chemical Drilling Color Mixing Compressors Conveyors Injection Molding Assembly Motor Winding Oil Fields Painting Palletizers Pipelines Polishing Reactors Robots Rolling Security Systems Stretch Wrap Cranes Crushing Cutting Digesters Drilling Electronic Testing Elevators Engine Test Stands Extrusion Forging Generators Gluing Grinding Heat Treating A Hossain/August 24 2010 Slitting Sorting Stackers Stitching Stack Precipitators Threading Tire Building Traffic Control Textile Machine Turbines Turning Weaving Web Handling Welding 4 .

• The system had to be reusable. so that it could be easily understood by plant personnel. • The method used to program the controller had to be simple. (2) Be easily programmed and maintained by plant engineers and technicians. relay-controlled systems. Their primary goal was to eliminate the high costs associated with inflexible. • The system had to be capable of sustaining an industrial environment. • The controller had to be designed in modular form. Such a control system would reduce machine downtime and provide expandability for the future. • The control system needed the capability to pass data collection to a central system.History of PLC The Hydramatic Division of the General Motors Corporation specified the design criteria for the first programmable controller in 1968. Some of the initial specifications included the following: • The new control system had to be price competitive with the use of relay systems. so that subassemblies could be removed easily for replacement or repair. The specifications required a solid-state system with computer flexibility able to (1) survive in an industrial environment. A Hossain/August 24 2010 5 . and (3) Be reusable. • The input and output interfaces had to be easily replaceable.

A computer can execute a complex programming task and also multitasking. A well-designed PLC can be placed in an area with substantial amounts of electrical noise. modern PLCs have multitasking capabilities. Distinction of PLCs is that their hardware and software are designed for easy use by plant electricians and technicians. An standard PLC is designed to executes a single program in an orderly fashion. A Hossain/August 24 2010 6 . mechanical vibration. Software programming uses conventional relay ladder symbols. or other easily learned languages. which are familiar to plant personnel. are easily removed and replaced.PLC and Computer       A PLC and a computer both are electronic processor unit. The hardware interfaces for connecting field devices are actually part of the PLC itself and are easily connected. however. electromagnetic interference. The modular and self-diagnosing interface circuits are able to pin point malfunctions and moreover. As PLCs are rapidly changing. The architecture of a PLC’s CPU is basically same as that of a general purpose computer. some important characteristics set them apart. PLCs are specifically designed to survive the harsh conditions of the industrial environment. and noncondensing humidity. Unlike computer.

Why PLCs ? Soft Manufacturing Process  Flexible Manufacturing Process  Retrofit Existing Process  Less Maintenance  Easy to Debug  A Hossain/August 24 2010 7 .

PLC can be programmed and used by plant engineers and maintenance electricians without much electronic and computer programming background. They can programmed by using the existing ladder diagrams. timers. and so on.  The programmability allows for fast and easy changes in the relay ladder logic to meet the changing needs of the process or driven equipment without the need for expensive and time consuming rewiring process. pneumatic system.Why PLCs are so Popular?  Programmable logic controller have made it possible to precisely control large process machines and driven equipment with less physical wiring and wiring time than it requires with standard electromechanical relays.  Modem PLCs are "electrician friendly". A Hossain/August 24 2010 8 . drum switches.

C. E.Advantages of PLC A. D.can replace various independent/ standalone controller.    Lower Cost  Advancement in technology and open architecture of PLC will reduce the market price.     Large Quantity of Contact  Large number of' Soft Contact' available. A Hossain/August 24 2010 9 .     Pilot Running (Simulation Capability)  A program can be simulated or run without actual input connection.     Implementing Changes and Correcting Errors  Do not have to rewiring relay panel.     Flexibility  Universal Controller .  Change program using keyboard. B.

  G.   Visual Observation. Easy for 'Electrician . etc. Operator message can be programmed for each possible malfunction. Reliability In general -very reliable H. Can observe the opening and closing of contact switch on CRT . Ladder or Boolean Programming Method. Speed of Operation Depends on scan time -millisecond.    Simplicity of Ordering Control Sys. Components One package with Relay.Advantages of PLC F. Timers. Asynchronous operation. F. A Hossain/August 24 2010 10 . Control Block. F.

 Software lock on a program (Password) Ease of Changes by Programming M.  Ability to program and reprogram.Advantages of PLC Documentation K. loading and down loading A Hossain/August 24 2010 11 .  Printout of ladder logic can be printed easily Security L.

etc.Disadvantages of PLC A. high vibration. high humidity level. Environment Consideration  Not adapted for very high temperature. Fail-safe operation  Does not start automatically when power failure ( can be programmed into )  Not "Fail-safe" -Fail-shorted rather than OPEN  Fixed-circuit operation  Fixed control system -less costly A Hossain/August 24 2010 12 . A.function application C. New Technology  Change from ladder and relay to PLC concept B. Fixed program Application  Not cost effective for single.

The control contacts (input devices) are to left and coils (output devices) on the right. Ladder diagrams are an industrial standard for representing relay-logic control system A Hossain/August 24 2010 13 .What is a Ladder Diagram? A complete control scheme normally drawn as a series of contacts and coils arranged between two vertical control supply lines so that the horizontal lines of contacts appear similar to rungs of a ladder.

PLC Series 5 Input/Output Chassis A Hossain/August 24 2010 14 .

Allen-Bradley PLC Series 5 Processor Module A Hossain/August 24 2010 15 .

PLC 5/25 Processor Mode of Operation A Hossain/August 24 2010 16 .

A-B Series 5 Power Supply A Hossain/August 24 2010 17 .

120 VAC Input Module Connection A Hossain/August 24 2010 18 .

120 VAC Output Module Connection A Hossain/August 24 2010 19 .

Two Slot Addressing A Hossain/August 24 2010 20 .

PLC Scan and Update Sequence A Hossain/August 24 2010 21 .

How PLC Works? Input Map 00 0 Output Map 00 I:001 01 03 04 1 01 0 02 1 03 0 O:001 I:001 04 01 00 01 00 1 01 0 02 0 03 0 04 O:001 O:001 01 03 O:001/01 03 01 120 VAC Input Module 0 Ladder Logic in Processor Memory A Hossain/August 24 2010 120 VAC Output Module 22 .

PLC Input & Output Mapping M START SW STOP SW RELAY COIL M SELF HOLDING FOR "M" L1 CONTROL POWER ON LIGHT START STOP L1 00 00 01 01 02 02 03 03 04 04 MOTOR RELAY COIL I: INPUT 0 RACK 01 SLOT / 03 ADDRESS O: OUTPUT 0 RACK 01 SLOT / I:001 MOTOR ON LIGHT 01 N 03 ADDRESS O:001 I:001 00 01 N O:001/01 O:001 01 A Hossain/August 24 2010 O:001 03 23 .

etc. timer data.999) -File #2: Main Ladder File -Subroutine file (File #3 -999) -Selectable Interrupt file (File #3 -999) -Fault Routine File (File #3 -999) Data Files -Files which store data of the I/0 module. A Hossain/August 24 2010 24 .PLC Program and Data Files Program Files -Reserved Files (File # 0) -SFC file (File # 1 ) -Ladder file (File #2. discrete input data. discrete output data. -Can be integer data. floating point (real) data. counter data.

Input/Output Addressing A Hossain/August 24 2010 25 .

Memory Organization for Data Files A Hossain/August 24 2010 26 .

Memory Map of File Types A Hossain/August 24 2010 27 .

A-B PLC Series-5 Data Organization A Hossain/August 24 2010 28 .

Floating Point Files A Hossain/August 24 2010 29 .

Timer and Counter Data Files A Hossain/August 24 2010 30 .

Control Data File A Hossain/August 24 2010 31 .

PLC Logical Addressing A Hossain/August 24 2010 32 .

General Instruction Format A Hossain/August 24 2010 33 .

General Instruction Format A Hossain/August 24 2010 34 .

Status File A Hossain/August 24 2010 35 .

TIME ON DELAY (TON) A Hossain/August 24 2010 36 .