You are on page 1of 27

Angle Modulation Reception & FM Stereo

FM Receivers
- Double conversion superheterodyne receivers
Preselector rejects image frequency
Limiter final IF amplifier
Frequency discriminator extracts information from FM wa
For FM broadcast:
First IF 10.7MHz (for good image-frequency rejection
Second IF 455 kHz (for high gain)

Tuned-Circuit Frequency Discriminators

- convert FM to AM and then demodulate AM envelope with conventional peak
- requires 1800 phase inverter, adder circuit and frequency-dependent circuits
a. Slope Detector
- Converts FM to AM
- Less linear output

b. Balanced Slope Detector

- two-single-ended slope detector

connected in parallel and fed
1800 out of phase
- La, Ca, Lb, Cb, - perform FM to
AM conversion
- D1, C1, R1, D2, C2, R2 - remove info
from AM envelope
- more linear output
- Lacks limiting circuit

Foster-Seeley Discriminator
- Similar to balanced slope detector

d. Ratio Detector

- Immune to amplitude variations

B. Phase Locked-Loop Demodulators

- requires no tuned circuits
- automatically compensates for changes in the carrier frequency
due to
instability in the transmit oscillator

C. Quadrature FM Demodulator
- sometimes called a coincidence detector
- extracts the original information signal from the composite IF
waveform by
multiplying two quadrature (900 out of phase) signals

M Noise Suppression
- suppresses noise in the form of amplitude variations
- uses limiter circuit

Amplitude Limiters & FM Thresholding

hreshold, quieting or capture level prescribed minimum input level

- Noise limiters can improve S/N by 20dB

FM thresholding also known as FM quieting or FM capture effect

- improvement in the S/N ratio

3 criteria before FM thresholding can occur:

1. S/N prediction S/N >= 10 dB or greater.
2. IF signal must be sufficiently amplified to overdrive the limiter.
3. Signal must have a modulation index >= 1.

2. Limiter Circuits

FM Capture Effect
- if two stations are received simultaneously at the same or nearly the same
frequency, the receiver locks onto the stronger station while suppressing
the weaker station

capture ratio minimum dB difference in signal strength between 2 received s

= 1 dB high-quality FM receivers
double limiting two limiter stages
triple limiting three limiter stages

oblem: For an FM receiver with a bandwidth B =200 kHz, a power noise figure NF
and an input noise temperature T = 100 K, determine the minimum receive
carrier power necessary to achieve a postdetection S/N of 37 dB. Use the
receiver block diagram below as the receiver model and the FM thresholding c
shown for m=1.

Frequency Vs Phase Modulation



Better S/N

Can be demodulated using

noncoherent demod which
are less expensive

Does not require preemphasis


VCOs can produce highfrequency deviation and

high m

Can use crystal oscillator

because modulation is
performed in a separate circuit
from carrier osc.

Requires coherent

Lower S/N than PM

Cannot use crystal oscillator


Monophonic single 50-Hz to 15 kHz audio channel made up the entire voice
and music information frequency spectrum
- can separate the high frequency signal (tweeters) and low frequency
signal (woofers) but impossible to separate sound spatially (no
directivity to the sound)
- before 1951 FM transmission

Stereophonic information signal is spatially divided into two 50-Hz to 15 kH

audio channels (left & right channels)
- separate music or sound by tonal quality such as percussion, strings,
horns and so on
- Stereophonic receivers can receive monophonic signals
- Monophonic receivers can also receive stereophonic signals
- 40dB separation between the two channels

SCA Subsidiary Communications

- subcarrier transmission during
- used to broadcast uninterrupte
music to private subscribers
such as dept stores, restaurant
etc.. Equipped with special SCA
- subcarrier ranged from 25 kHz
75 kHz and later standardized a
67 kHz

Maximum frequency deviation for stereo FM = 75 kHz

SCA = 10% of 75 kHz = 7.5 kHz
19-kHz stereo pilot = 10% of 75 kHz = 7.5 kHz
L+R transmission = 60 kHz
FM Transmission

R and L-R channel interleaving

Fm Stereo Reception

arge-Scale Integration Stereo Demodulator


Types of 2-way radio communication systems:
1. Two-way mobile radio
Half-duplex, one to many radio comm with no dial tone
a. Class D citizens band (CB) radio 26.96 to 27.41 MHz
b. Amateur (ham) radio = 1.8 MHz to 300 MHz
c. Aeronautical Broadcasting Service (ABS) 2.8MHz to 457 MHz
d. Private land mobile radio services
Public safety radio
Special emergency radio
Industrial radio
2. Mobile-telephone services
Analog cellular radio
Digital cellular radio
Personal communications satellite service (PCSS)


- Uses the following bands:
132 MHz to 174 MHz
450 MHz to 470 MHz
806 MHz to 947 MHz

Has frequency deviation = 5 kHz and fm=3 kHz

Deviation ratio = 1.67
Maximum Bessel bandwidth = 24 kHz

wo-way FM Radio Transmitter

wo-Way FM Radio Receiver

Squelch Circuit