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Hospital

Administration
Lecture 2
Mrs: Asma A. Alderaa
2011-2012

INTRODUCTION
Many aspects of health organizations are managed by
health professionals, all need management skills.

Management or
administration, on a planned
and scientific basis, in
necessary for the smooth
running of every institution,
including hospitals.

Hospital administration is a
complex task and can causes
headaches and one is likelihood
of developing high blood
pressure or ulcers if it is not
handled properly.

It involves planning, organizing,


controlling and evaluating and
this can be done better by
knowing the principles of
management and administration.

Administration

is tense.
Things happen in spite of the best rules.
Problems do not respect rules and regulations, or
procedures.
One may win or lose, depending on how one
handles people and problems.
Insolvable-looking problems may melt away with
surprising ease, like the shadow at dawn.
Problems, which look small and simple, may
snowball into extremely difficult issues for which
one should be watchful and deal with the problems
more efficient and effectively without making any
premature assumption and one should be open to
all suggestion and comments.

Failure is a part of human


One should
experience
andnot
if it become
isnobody
seen as
Nobody
is infallible;
is a
miserable
if something
goes
challenge,
will
find
that
it is
right
all theone
time.
One
has
the
wrong.
Iton
can
to the
truly
atostep
thehappen
road to
right
make
mistakes
and
the
best
of
administrators.
success
and
personal
only
person
who
nevergrowth.
makes a
mistake is the man who does
nothing. But one should learn
and profit from the mistake,
which is a learning experience.

Hospital

personnel, medical staff, para-medical


or general employees, must all be concerned
with one goal:

Providing the best


possible
patient care.

Distinction between Hospital & Industrial


:Organization
The difference between administrative work in
hospital and in other organizations can be attributes
to the existence of some conditions peculiar to
hospitals.

N0. 1

The consumers of the services


provided in a hospital (the
patients) are physically or
mentally ill and are rendered
services within the four wall of
the hospital.

As compared with most other


institutions of business,
government and education, this
is an unusual situation and
present quite different
problems of management.

N0. 2

The customers of the hospital


(the patients) have individual
needs and require highly
personalized and custommade services.

The diagnostic, therapeutic


and preventive services
provided by physicians,
nurses and technicians, and
the aid of expensive and
specialized equipments and
medication are tailored to the
need of each individual
consumer.

N0. 3
The

hospital provides a
wide range of scientific and
technical services such as:
Nursing, diet therapy,
anesthesiology, pharmacy,
radiology, clinical laboratory,
physical therapy and
medical social work.
Many of its services are
provided continuously,
round the clock, every day
of the year.

N0. 4

Nurses and certain other


personnel must accept direction
from both the matron and the
physicians under whom they
work closely every day.

They also have to fulfill the


emotional, physical, mental and
medical needs of the patients.

The human relations problems


in such situations of dual
authority are much more
frequent, delicate, varies and
complex than in organization
where this situation does not
exist.

N0. 5

Handicapped by low wages,


rigid discipline and some
apprehension of exposure to
disease, hospital personnel
are expected to:

Maintain a very high


level of efficiency, as
their functioning affects
the lives of patients.

N0. 6

The amount and the variety of training


programmers that the hospital has to
provide.
Training is provided for medical interns
and residents (6 months to 1 year),
technicians (2 years), medical laboratory
technicians (2 years), physical therapists,
pharmacists, medical social workers,
dieticians and nurses. Classrooms,
clinical and different training methods are
used in varying combinations.
The administrator is responsible for
planning and operating these various
training programmers.
Very few other types of institutions
combine
such
major
educational
responsibilities with other operating
activities.

N0. 7

The efficiency and quality of


health care services in any
hospital is directly dependent on
the use of bio-medical equipment
in diagnosis, surgery and
therapeutic process.
These equipment employ
sophisticated technology made of
complex systems. The problem of
maintenance and management of
these bio-medical equipment is
complex because there is acute
shortage of technical hands who
have suitable and adequate
training in the maintenance and
repairing of these specialized hitech equipment.

Hospital administration should be entrusted on those who have


the necessary training and the right kind of attitude to perform
this vital task.

Definition of Management
is an art with
a scientific base

a science can be learned through the


study of basic rules, principles and
formulas

acquired through trial-and-error


& years of experience

Definition of Management
It is a process, with both interpersonal and technical aspects,
through which the objectives of the health services organization
are specified and accomplished by utilizing human and physical
resources and technology.

Management Process

It must be a size
which the people can
afford to build and
.operate

It must be designed to
meet all the needs of
.people it is to serve

It must be well-staffed
with a sufficient number
of physicians, nurses
and other trained
personnel to give
adequate and efficient
.service

Reasons for inadequate hospital service

Lack of planning.
Lack of locally available funds.

Principles of Planning Hospital Facilities & Services


1.
2.
3.
4.

Patient care of a high quality.


Effective community orientation.
Economic viability.
Sound architectural plan.

:Patient Care of High Quality- 1


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Provision of competent professional and technical staff


and of the equipment and facilities necessary to support
the hospital's patient care.
An organizational structure that assigns responsibility
appropriately and requires accountability for the various
functions within the institution, including those particularly
related to the patient care.
Interaction of members of the medical staff with each other
and with other members of the health team through
consultations and conferences.
Continuous review by appropriate persons of the
adequacy of care provided by physicians, nursing staff and
paramedical technicians.
Educational activities designed to improve patient care and
to keep the hospital' professional and technical staffs abreast
of new medical and technological knowledge.

:Effective Community Orientation- 2


1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

A governing board made up primary of persons who have


demonstrated concern for the community as well as
leadership ability.
Policies that assure availability of services as needed to all
of the people in the hospital service area.
Participation of the hospital in community programs to
provide preventive, emergency and casualty care and to
teach good health and health care practices to community
residents.
Service programs extend beyond the walls of the hospital into
the community, and that complement and are coordinated
with service programs of other hospitals, mental facilities,
rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, homes for the aged,
community clinics, home-health services and health
departments.
A public information program that keep the community
informed about and identified with the hospital's goals,
objectives and plans.

:Economic Viability-3
1.

2.

3.

4.

A corporate organization that accepts responsibility for


sound financial management with optimum quality of care
and the hospital's responsibility for community services and
that raises funds, when necessary, to supplement the
hospital's earned income.
Patient care objectives that are consistent with projected
services demands and the availability of operating
financing for adequate personnel and equipment required
to maintain patient care of a high quality.
A program to attract the medical staff, an adequate number
of physicians engaged in family practice as well as the
essential medical-surgical specialists to maintain optimum
occupancy of inpatient facilities and a full utilization of
outpatient services.
A planned program of expansion or development of
facilities and services based on community need and other
community health resources to avoid unnecessary
duplication.

:Economic Viability-3
5.

Community participation in the hospital's programs through


sponsors, contributions, auxiliaries and volunteers.

6.

An annual budget plan for maintaining:


Services at a high level of quality.
Appropriate standby equipment and services.
Competitive salary and wage scales and employee
benefits.
Interest and payments on mortgage and other
indebtedness.

:Sound Architectural Plan- 4


1.

Retention of an architect experienced in hospital design


and construction.

2.

Selection of a site large enough to provide for parking and


future expansion and readily accessible to water and
sewage lines and to population concentrations through
highway, rail, rapid transit or bus lines.

3.

Determination of facility size appropriate to the demands of


the hospital's service area and of departmental areas large
enough to provide the diagnostic and treatment services
required by the hospital's medical staff on an emergency
and day-to-day basis.
Recognition of the importance of establishing convenient
traffic patterns, both within and outside the hospital, for
movement of physicians, hospital staff, patients and
visitors and for efficient transportation of food, laundry,
drugs and other supplies.

4.

:Sound Architectural Plan- 4


5.

Adequate attention to important hospital concepts such as:

Infection control.

Disaster planning.

Use of hospital services by ambulatory inpatients as well


as outpatients.

Intensive and extended care units.

Psychiatric care programs.