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22 views19 pagesthis is all about physics ...........capacitare of capacitance..........

Feb 24, 2016

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this is all about physics ...........capacitare of capacitance..........

© All Rights Reserved

22 views

this is all about physics ...........capacitare of capacitance..........

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 19

How?

Any two conductors

near each other form a

CAPACITOR, we say

there is capacitance in

the system

Capacitance

A capacitor is an energy storage device.

A capacitor can store charge: q is

removed from one side of the

capacitor and placed onto the other,

leaving one side with (-q) and the

other side with (+q).

We have to do WORK to do this.

If we connect the two conductors

with a wire, the charges flow to make

the potential difference between

conductors = 0.

When this happens, energy is

released

Capacitance

Analogy with air tank:

Capacitance

Definition of capacitance:

in capacitor is proportional

to the potential (voltage)

which is pushing the

charge into the conductors

Constant of proportionality

is C, the capacitance

Capacitance

C is just a function of geometry between two

conductors

a) Assume a charge on the conductors

b) Calculate the voltage difference due to the charge

`

c) The Ratio Q/V is the capacitance

The unit of capacitance is called the Farad (F)

One Farad is equal to one Coulomb per Volt ( F = C / V )

Parallel

plates

conductor

insulator

Concentric

cylinders

Concentric

spheres

Gauss:

So

q

E E Area E A

0

q 0

or EA

q

E

0 A

V Ed

separation

d

E-field

area A

the E field between the plates. We use Gauss

Law, with one end of our gaussian surface

closed inside one plate, and the other closed

in the region between the plates

Total charge q

on inside of plate

0 EA 0 A

C q /V

Ed

d

Parallel Plate Capacitor

0 A

d

L

Cylindrical (nested cylinder) Capacitor

ln(b / a )

ab

C 4 0

Spherical (nested sphere) Capacitor

ba

C 2 0

Faraday had little formal education, and knew little of higher

mathematics such as calculus, or even trigonometry, or any

but the simplest algebra.

Discovered the electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism,

and the laws of electrolysis, invented the use of the field lines

1791 1867

technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that

electricity became viable for use in technology.

Energy stored in a capacitor = like a

stretched spring has potential energy

associated with it.

How much work is required to

charge a capacitor?

Its the work to move charges from

one plate to another, one at a time.

Moving first electron: almost no

potential difference, not a lot of work.

But with more and more electrons:

the potential difference V gets bigger

and bigger, so more work is required

Each electron has to do qe x V of

work to get across. Total work is

total charge x average potential

difference:

capacitor is the energy

required to charge it:

Another way to think of the energy stored in

a in a charged capacitor:

Imagine the stored energy

1

2

U

CV

2

between the plates

We can calculate an energy DENSITY (Joules per volume): The volume

between the plates is A d. Then the energy density (u) is

1 CV 2

But we know

V Ed

and

0 A

C

d

so

2 Ad

1

u 0 E 2

2

space can contain energy, if there is an electric field in

the "empty" space.

If we can get an electric field to travel (or propagate) through empty space

we can send or transmit energy! This is achieved with light waves (or

microwaves or radio waves or whatever)

Dielectrics

Dielectric is another word for insulator, a material that

does not allow charges to move easily through it.

Why do we write 0, with a little 0 subscript? Because other

materials (water, paper, plastic, even air) have different

permittivities = k0. Here, k is called the dielectric

constant.

In all of our equations where you see 0, you can

substitute 0 when considering some other materials

Material

Air

1.00054

Polystyrene

2.6

Paper

3.5

Transformer Oil

4.5

Pyrex

4.7

Ruby Mica

5.4

Porcelain

6.5

Silicon

12

Germanium

16

Ethanol

25

Water (20 C)

80.4

Water (50 C)

78.5

Titania Ceramic

130

Strontium

Titanate

310

The nice thing about this is that we

can increase the capacitance of a

capacitor by filling the space

between conductors with a dielectric:

0 A

C

C

d

Dielectrics

A dielectric in an electric field becomes polarized; this

allows it to reduce the electric field in the gap for the same

potential difference.

Dielectrics

capacitor while either the

voltage or the charge is

held constant has the

same effect the ratio of

charge to voltage

increases.

Combining capacitances

Capacitors in series all have the same charge;

the total potential difference is the sum of the

potentials across each capacitor.

Note that this gives

the inverse of the

capacitance.

Combining capacitances

Capacitors in parallel all have the same potential

difference; the total charge is the sum of the

charge on each.

Combining capacitances

forming one capacitor with a larger area:

Review of Capacitance:

Capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor:

capacitance.

Dielectric constant:

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