You are on page 1of 39

MATEMATIKA REKAYASA I

MO 141202
Kuliah 3: Transcendental
function

mahmud mustain

MATERI Kuliah 3
Transcendental function:
1. Fungsi logaritma
2. Fungsi eksponensial
3. Menggambar fungsi
4. Fungsi Inversnya

Definition
A transcendental function is a
function that does not satisfy a
polynomial equation whose
coefficients are themselves roots of
polynomials, in contrast to an
algebraic function, which does satisfy
such an equation.[1]

In other words, a transcendental


function is a function that "transcends"
algebra in the sense that it cannot be
expressed in terms of a finite sequence of
the algebraic operations of addition,
multiplication, and root extraction.
Examples of transcendental functions
include the exponential function, the
logarithm, and the trigonometric functions
.

Exponential &
Logarithmic Functions
Dr. Carol A. Marinas

Table of Contents
Exponential Functions
Logarithmic Functions
Converting between Exponents and L
ogarithms
Properties of Logarithms
Exponential and Logarithmic Equatio
ns

General Form of

Exponential Function

bx
Domain: All
reals
Range:
y>0
x-intercept:
None
y-intercept:
(0, 1)

where b > 1

y=

General Form of Exponential


Function y = b (x + c) + d
where b > 1

c moves graph
left or right
(opposite way)
d move graph
up or down
(expected way)
So y=3(x+2) + 3
moves the
graph 2 units to
the left and 3
units up
(0, 1) to ( 2,

Relationships of
Exponential (y = bx) & Logarithmic (y =
logbx) Functions
y = bx

y = logbx is the
inverse of y = bx
Domain: All Reals Domain: x > 0
Range: All Reals
Range:
y>0
x-intercept: (1, 0)
x-intercept: None
y-intercept: None
y-intercept: (0, 1)

Relationships of
Exponential (y = bx) & Logarithmic (y =
logbx) Functions

Converting between
Exponents & Logarithms
BASEEXPONENT = POWER
42 = 16
4 is the base. 2 is the exponent.
16 is the power.
As a logarithm,
logBASEPOWER=EXPONENT
log 4 16 = 2

Logarithmic Abbreviations
log10 x = log x (Common log)
loge x = ln x (Natural log)
e = 2.71828...

Properties of Logarithms
logb(MN)= logbM + logbN
Ex: log4(15)= log45 + log43

logb(M/N)= logbM logbN


Ex: log3(50/2)= log350 log32

logbMr = r logbM
Ex: log7 103 = 3 log7 10

logb(1/M) = logbM-1= 1 logbM =


logbM
log11 (1/8) = log11 8-1 = 1 log11 8 = log11 8

Properties of Logarithms
(Shortcuts)
logb1 = 0 (because b0 = 1)
logbb = 1 (because b1 = b)
logbbr = r (because br = br)
blog M = M (because logbM =
logbM)
b

Examples of Logarithms
Simplify log 7 + log 4 log 2 =
log 7*4 = log 14
2
Simplify ln e2 =
2 ln e = 2 logee = 2 * 1 = 2
Simplify e 4 ln 3 - 3 ln 4 =
e ln 34 - ln 43 = e ln 81/64 = e
81/64

loge 81/64

Change-of-Base Formula
log712 =

log 12
log 7

logam
logbm = --------

OR

logab

log712 =

ln 12
ln 7

Exponential & Logarithmic


Equations
If logb m = logb n, then m = n.
If log6 2x = log6(x + 3),
then 2x = x + 3 and x = 3.
If bm = bn, then m = n.
If 51-x = 5-2x, then 1 x = 2x and
x = 1.

If your variable is in
the exponent..

Isolate the base-exponent term.


Write as a log. Solve for the variable.
Example: 4x+3 = 7
log 4 7 = x + 3 and 3 + log 4 7 = x
OR with change of bases:
x = 3 + log 7
log 4
Another method is to take the LOG of
both sides.

Logarithmic Equations
Isolate to a single log term.
Convert to an exponent.
Solve equation.
Example: log x + log (x 15) = 2
log x(x 15) = 2 so 102 = x (x 15)
and
100 = x2 15x and 0 = x2 15x 100
So 0 = (x 20) (x + 5) so x = 20 or 5

Examples
The following functions are transcendental:

Note that in particular for 2 if we set c equal to e, the


base of the natural logarithm, then we get that ex is a transcendental
function.
Similarly, if we set c equal to e in 5, then we get that ln(x), the
natural logarithm, is a transcendental function.
For more information on the second notation of 3, see tetration.

Graph of a function
In mathematics, the graph of a function f
is the collection of all ordered pairs (x,
f(x)). If the function input x is a scalar, the
graph is a two-dimensional graph, and for
a continuous function is a curve. If the
function input x is an ordered pair (x1, x2)
of real numbers, the graph is the
collection of all ordered triples (x1, x2, f(x1,
x2)), and for a continuous function is a
surface (see three-dimensional graph).

Examples

Inverse Functions
Definition of Inverse: A function g is the inverse of the
function f if f(g(x)) = x and g(f(x)) = x.

Domain of f = Range of g
Domain of g = Range of f

Ex. Show that the following are inverses of each other.

f ( x) 2 x 1
3

f ( g ( x))

g ( x)
3

x 1
1
2

x 1
2

Reflective Property of Inverse Functions


f contains (a, b) iff f-1 contains (b, a)
if and only if
Existence of an Inverse Function
1.
2.

A function possesses an inverse iff it is 1 1.


If f is strictly monotonic on its entire domain, then
it is 1 1 and hence, possesses an inverse.

Note: strictly monotonic means the function is increasing


or decreasing over its entire domain.

Lets look at the following two functions.


a.) f(x) = x3 + x 1 and b.) f(x) = x3 x + 1

1 1,
therefore
it has an
inverse.

Not 1 1
because it does
not pass the
horizontal
line test.

Find the inverse of

y 2x 3

y 2x 3
2

y 3 2x
2
y 3
x
2
x2 3
y
2
2
x 3
f 1 ( x)
2
2

f ( x) 2 x 3
Domain of f(x)

3
2 ,

Steps for finding


an inverse.
1.

solve for x

2.

exchange xs
and ys

3.

replace y
with f-1

Range of f(x)

0,
Domain of f -1(x) = Range of f(x)
and
Range of f-1(x) = Domain of f(x)

y=x
f-1(x)

f(x)

The Derivative of an Inverse Function


If f is differentiable on its domain and possesses an inverse
function g, then the derivative of g is given by

1
g ' ( x)
f ' ( g ( x))
Graphs of inverse functions have reciprocal slopes.

x.

Let f(x) = x2 (for x >0) and let f-1(x) =

Show that the slopes of the graphs of f and f-1 are reciprocals
at the following points. (2, 4) and (4, 2)
Find the derivatives of f and f-1.

f ' ( x) 2 x

and

f ' x
1

At (2, 4), the slope of the graph of f is f(2) = 4.


At (4, 2), the slope of the graph of f-1 is .

1
2 x

In the same way, the inverse of a given function


will undo what the original function did.
For example, lets take a look at the square
function: f(x) = x2

x
55
55
55

f(x)

x2

2525
25 25
25
25
25
25
25
255

f--1(x)
5
5
5
5
x 55
55

In the same way, the inverse of a given


function will undo what the original
function did.
For example, lets take a look at the square
function: f(x) = x2
x

f(x)

f--1(x)

121
11
11
11
11
121
121
11
11
121
121
11
11
2
121
121
11
121
x 11
x
11
121
11
121
121
121
11
11
11
121
121
11

Graphically, the x and y values


of a point are switched.
The point (4, 7)
has an inverse
point of (7, 4)
AND
The point (-5, 3)
has an inverse
point of (3, -5)

Graphically, the x and y values of a point are switche


If the function y = g(x)
contains the points

10
8
6

8 16

2
-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

then its inverse, y = g-1(x),


contains the points

-2
-4

8 16

-6
-8
-10

Where is there a
line of
reflection?

y = f(x)

The graph of
a function
and its
inverse are
mirror
images about
the line

y=x

y=x

y = f-1(x)

Find the inverse of a function :


Example 1: y = 6x - 12
Step 1: Switch x and y:x = 6y - 12
Step 2: Solve for y:

x 6y 12
x 12 6y
x 12
y
6
1
x2 y
6

Example 2:
Given the function :
inverse:

y = 3x2 + 2 find the

Step 1: Switch x and y:x = 3y2 + 2


Step 2: Solve for y:

x 3y 2 2
2

x 2 3y
x2
y2
3
x2
y
3

AL-HAMDULILLAH