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Constant Bottom Hole Pressure

Theory
Sparks Petroleum Services Oman

1-Constant BHP Theory

Objective

Describe why constant bottom hole


pressure (BHP) is required

Demonstrate the additive effects of


pressure

Describe how to account for friction

State the procedures used to keep BHP


constant (or nearly constant)
2-Constant BHP Theory

Why do we want constant BHP?


SIDPP

Prevent additional influx

Provide basis for


determination of
pressures at other points
in the well

SICP

Influx stops
when BHP
becomes
equal to the
Formation
Pressure

Can be monitored via DP


BHP = Pore Pressure
3-Constant BHP Theory

Consider a Simplified Well


SICP

5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

Out of hole, kick detected

Well shut-in

Influx flow rate begins to


decrease

Wellbore BHP and pore


pressure equalize

What is SICP?
4-Constant BHP Theory

Imposed SICP stops influx


SICP

= 800

SICP
+
Total Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure of 5000 psi

Total Mud
Hydrostatic
Pressure is
5000 psi

Equalizes the BHP

5800

thus,
SICP = BHP - 5000
SICP = 5800 - 5000

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

SICP = 800 psi


5-Constant BHP Theory

Well Still Shut-in

What happens as time passes


and we do nothing at all?

6-Constant BHP Theory

Gas Migrates Half-way to Top


?

Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure is 2500 psi
BHP = Gas Pressure +
Hydrostatic of Mud Below

Gas Pressure is 5800 psi


Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure is 2500 psi

8300

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

WOW!

7-Constant BHP Theory

Casing Pressure Also Increases


3300

WOW!

Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure is 2500 psi
CP = Gas Pressure less
Hydrostatic of Mud Above

Gas Pressure is 5800 psi


Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure is 2500 psi

8300

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

8-Constant BHP Theory

Gas at the Suface


5800

Gas Pressure is 5800 psi

Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure is 5000 psi

BHP = Gas Pressure plus


Hydrostatic of Mud Below
10,800

Formation likely to fail


long before this
pressure is reached!
Formation Pressure 5800 psi

9-Constant BHP Theory

Lets Start Over

...and find a smarter way to


handle this migrating gas

10-Constant BHP Theory

Can we keep BHP constant?


800

Total Mud
Hydrostatic
Pressure is
5000 psi
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

Lets start over...

As gas migrates, bleed mud

Allow gas to expand

Gas follows Boyles Law

Keep the sum of gas pressure


plus the hydrostatic of the
mud below the gas equal to
the original BHP (5800 psi)
11-Constant BHP Theory

Gas Migrates Half-way to Top, BHP


Pressure Kept at 5800 psi
?
Upper mud column hydrostatic is
2500 psi
Gas expands as 20 bbls mud is bled,
gas pressure decreases to 3500 psi
Lower mud column hydrostatic is
2300 psi

20 bbls bled
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

12-Constant BHP Theory

Casing Pressure Increases as Mud is


Bled and BHP Kept at 5800 psi
1000

CP = Gas Pressure less


Hydrostatic of Mud
Above
20 bbls bled

CP = 3500 - 2500

5800

CP = 1000 psi

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

13-Constant BHP Theory

Gas at Surface as Mud is Bled and


BHP Kept at 5800 psi
1600

Gas Pressure = 1600 psi


CP = 1600 psi
Mud Hydrostatic = 4200
BHP = 5800 psi

60 bbls bled
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

14-Constant BHP Theory

BHP has been kept at 5800 psi


Gas is at surface

1600

CP = 1600 psi
BHP = 5800 psi

Great...
but how do we see
the BHP during all
this?

60 bbls bled
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

15-Constant BHP Theory

Use of the Drill Pipe Gage


If we have drill pipe in the
hole, we can use it as a
link to the bottom...
BHP = 5800 psi
CP = 800 psi
Pit Gain = 50 bbls
Hydrostatic in DP = 5000 psi
SIDPP = BHP - DP Hydrostatic
SIDPP = 5800 - 5300
SIDPP = 500 psi

SIDPP

800

Pit Gain
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

16-Constant BHP Theory

Gas Migrated Half-way


Now, as gas migrates,
keep DP at 500 psi.
Bleed mud as needed.
BHP = 5800 psi
Pit Gain = 50 bbls + 20 bbls
SIDPP = 500 psi
DP Hydrostatic = 5300 psi
BHP = 500+ 5300
BHP = 5800 psi

500

1000

20 bbls
Bled
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

17-Constant BHP Theory

Gas Migrated to Surface


500

As gas migrates, keep


DP at 500 psi. Bleed
mud as needed.
BHP = 5800 psi
Pit Gain = 50 bbls + 60 bbls
SIDPP = 500 psi
DP Hydrostatic = 5300 psi
BHP =500 + 5300
BHP = 5800 psi

1600

60 bbls
Bled
5800

Formation Pressure 5800 psi

18-Constant BHP Theory

Equivalent Hydraulic Diagram


500
500

800

800

=
Pit Gain

5800

Pit Gain

5800

19-Constant BHP Theory

Balanced Well
Consider a well with
sufficient hydrostatic to
control the formation
pressure
The hydrostatic pressure in
both columns are equal.

0
0

Pit Gain

They have a common BHP


The depth and density are
such that BHP = 5300 psi

5300

20-Constant BHP Theory

Circulating Friction - Low Rate


605

Pump

Consider the pressures while


pumping at a slow rate
Pumping at 20 spm

Pit Gain

Circulating Friction = 605 psi


Annular Friction = 5 psi
BHP = 5300 psi + 5 psi

5
5305

21-Constant BHP Theory

Kick in the Hole - Well Shut-in


500

Pump

800

Well shut- in
Pit Gain = 50 bbls
Not yet circulating
Shut-in pressures recorded

50 bbls

5800

22-Constant BHP Theory

Pump is Brought to Speed


1105

Pump

(500 +605)
800

Circulating at 20 spm
Initial Circulating Pressure =
Initial Shut-in Pressure +
Initial Friction Pressure
Maintain 1105 psi on DP

50 bbls
5
5805

23-Constant BHP Theory

Kick is Up the Hole


605
1105

Pump

1000

Circulating at 20 spm
BHP constant because DP
pressure set at 1105 psi
5

Maintain 1105 psi on DP


CP increases because less
mud hydrostatic in annulus

5805

24-Constant BHP Theory

Kick is at the Surface


605
1105

Pump

1600

Circulating at 20 spm
BHP constant because DP
pressure set at 1105 psi
Maintain 1105 psi on DP
CP has reached a maximum

5
5805

25-Constant BHP Theory

Pump Balanced Weight Mud


605
1105

Pump

800

Circulating at 20 spm
Introduce Balanced Mud
(density balances BHP)
Will need to adjust DPP as
drill string fills with heavy
mud

5
5805

26-Constant BHP Theory

Balanced Weight Mud Has Reached Bit


(1105 - 500) x MW2/MW1)
665

Pump

850

Circulating at 20 spm
Drill string full of heavy mud
DPP pressure reduced to
665 psi, the friction pressure
associated with the heavier
mud

5
5805

27-Constant BHP Theory

Kick to Surface
665
665

Pump

1300

Circulating at 20 spm
Annulus partially filled with
heavy mud
5

Casing pressure at max value


BHP still 5805 psi

5805

28-Constant BHP Theory

Gas is Out of Well


665
665

Pump

175

Circulating at 20 spm
Annulus contains two muds
Casing pressure reduced
BHP still 5805 psi

5
5805

29-Constant BHP Theory

Original Mud is Out of Well


665
665

Pump

Circulating at 20 spm
Annulus contains balanced
weight mud
Casing pressure = 0
DPP = Friction of new mud
BHP still 5805 psi

5
5805

30-Constant BHP Theory

Well is Dead
0

Pump

Stop Pumps
Well Full of Balanced Wt. Mud
DPP = 0
CP = 0
BHP = 5800 psi

5800

31-Constant BHP Theory

Summary

BHP > or = Formation Pressure stops influx


DP gage is link to BHP
BHP can be kept constant if DP is:

constant during circulation with original mud


constant after balanced mud reaches bit
adjusted to account for balanced mud as it fills DP

account for higher density


account for higher friction pressure in drill string
32-Constant BHP Theory