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BASIC CALCULATIONS

Well Control School - Oman

1-basic calcs

Objectives

Discuss hydrostatic pressure and describe how it is


calculated.

Describe friction pressure and the impact of changes


in mud weight and pump rate on friction pressure

Describe pressure and volume calculations for ideal


gases using Boyles Law.

Discuss methods to calculate open hole and annular


volumes.
2-basic calcs

Kinds of Pressure
Imposed pressure: shut-in, static, gage
pressure
Hydrostatic pressure: pressure resulting from
a column of fluid.
Friction pressure: back pressure required for
fluid to flow.
3-basic calcs

Hydrostatic Pressure

P = 0.052 * MW * TVD
TVD =

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DEPENDS ON:


1. DENSITY OF FLUID
2. HEIGHT OF FLUID COLUMN

P
0. 052 * MW

P
MW =
0.052 * TVD
Units: P [psi]
MW [ppg]
TVD [ft]
4-basic calcs

Gradient of a Fluid
The pressure gradient is the pressure exerted per unit height of the fluid column.

GR [psi/ft] = 0.052 * MW [ppg]

Typical Fluid Gradients


GAS: 0.10 psi/ft
OIL: 0.30 psi/ft

FRESH WATER: 0.433 psi/ft


SALT WATER: 0.465 psi/ft

5-basic calcs

Kick Size and Shut-in


Pressures
ANN

DP

As the volume of the influx increases:


1.

The height of the gas influx increases.

2. Hydrostatic pressure in the annulus


decreases - Low gas gradient.
3. To balance with the drill pipe, the
pressure at the top of the annulus
must increase.

Shut-in quickly to minimize the volume


of the influx - keep pressures low.

BHP

6-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Pressure decrease caused by the friction
between the moving fluid and the pipe.
Dependent on:
Diameter of pipe
Length of pipe
Surface roughness of pipe
Fluid Viscosity
Fluid Velocity
7-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Pressure decrease caused by the friction
between the moving fluid and the pipe.
Dependent on

During Kick Handling

Diameter of pipe
Length of pipe
Roughness of pipe
Fluid Viscosity
Fluid Velocity

Unable to change
Unable to change
Unable to change
Changes with mud weight
We Control
8-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Friction Pressure looks like an imposed pressure to upstream areas.
0

1500

1000

2500

2000

No Flow

9-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Imposed pressure effect of friction is path dependent.
0

1500

1000

500

1500

No Flow

10-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Friction pressure changes linearly with mud weight.

P1
P2

MW1 MW2
Rearranging,

MW 2
P2 P1
MW 1

Increase from MW1 to MW2, friction pressure increases.


11-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Effect of MW
10 ppg MUD
0

0 SPM

1000

PUMP

No circulation
No friction pressure

15 ppg MUD
40 SPM

1500

PUMP

50

40 SPM

PUMP

75

PUMP = DP + ANN
1000 = 950 + 50

PUMP = DP + ANN
1500 = 1425 + 75

12-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Friction pressure changes with the square of flow rate.
2

SPM 2

P2 P1

SPM

GPM2

P2 P1

GPM

Friction pressure very sensitive to changes in flow rate


13-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Effect of Flow Rate
10 ppg MUD
0

0 SPM

PUMP

10 ppg MUD
40 SPM

1000

80 SPM

4000

PUMP

50

No circulation
No friction pressure

PUMP

200

PUMP = DP + ANN
1000 = 950 + 50

PUMP = DP + ANN
4000 = 1000*(80/40)2
14-basic calcs

Friction Pressure
Combined Effects
10 ppg MUD
0

0 SPM

1000

PUMP

40 SPM

PUMP

50

No circulation
No friction pressure

15 ppg MUD
6000

80 SPM

PUMP

300

PUMP = DP + ANN
1000 = 950 + 50

PUMP = DP + ANN
6000 = 1000*(15/10)*(80/40)2
15-basic calcs

Questions
Calculate the change in pump pressure if the mud
weight is changed from 10.4 ppg to 12.2 ppg and pump
rate is changed from 30 to 40 SPM. Pump pressure with
10.4 ppg mud at 30 SPM is equal to 265psi.
Answer = 553 psi
Q-1
Q-2
Q-3
a)
b)
c)

What will happen to BHP if MW is increased?


What will happen to BHP if SPM is increased?
What is the contributing factor to the BHP
Friction losses inside the string.
Pressure drop at the bit nozzles.
Annular pressure loss.

16-basic calcs