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- ENPE 523 Assignment 1
- Static Fluid Pressure and Fluid Flow
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You are on page 1of 166

times to multiply a number by itself. (4

= 4 x 4)

Fractions: To convert a fraction to a

decimal, divide the bottom number

(denominator) into the top number

(numerator). (5/8 = 5 8, which = .625)

To convert 10 3/8 to a decimal, divide 3

by 8 and add 10. (10 3/8 = 3 8 = .375

+ 10 = 10.375)

GUIDELINES FOR

ROUNDING

than or equal to 5.

2. Round strokes to the nearest whole

stroke. (1281.9 strokes = 1282 strokes)

3. Round barrels up to the nearest tenth.

(25.68 bbls =25.7 bbls.)

4. Express pressures to the nearest whole

psi. (1256.7 psi = 1257 psi.)

5. All capacities and displacements should

be carried out to 5 decimal places and

expressed as bbls/ft. (.0145561 bbl/ft

= .01456 bbl/ft)

2

GUIDELINES FOR

ROUNDING

1. Generally, round mud weight to the

round up.

13.32 ppg = ?

11.27 ppg = ?

3. If the mud weight is kill mud, ALWAYS!

round up.

(If the EIFD allows it, add .1 ppg, then

round)

10.66 ppg = ?

14.8024 ppg = ?

concepts provided in this section

covers

the foundation for good well

control.

pull of gravity.

This force is the objects weight

Sides of its container.

result of:

The height of the fluid column

exerts for each unit of length we use a

pressure gradient.

0 psi

0 ft.

8

0 psi

.433 psi

0 ft.

1 ft

0 psi

0 ft.

.433 psi

1 ft

.866 psi

2 ft

10

0 psi

.433 psi

0 ft.

.866 psi

2 ft

1.299 psi

3 ft

1 ft

Each foot increases by .433 psi. This is called the

FLUID GRADIENT

11

0 psi

.433 psi

0 ft.

.866 psi

2 ft

1.299 psi

3 ft

1 ft

3.031 psi

7 ft

Each foot increases by .433 psi. This is called the

FLUID GRADIENT

12

the force which fluid exerts per

foot of vertical depth; it is

measured in pounds per square

inch per foot (psi/ft)

convert the fluids density in pounds per

gallon to pounds per square inch per foot

(psi/ft)

Express gradient in three decimal places.

13

.052

14

GRADIENT FORMULAS

#5

Pressure Gradient = Fluid Density

X .052

#5a

Fluid Density = Pressure Gradient

.052

15

of water weighing 10.0 PPG?

Pressure Gradient = Fluid

Density X .052

PSI/Ft

PSI/Ft

PPG

PPG

PG = 10.0 X .052

PG = .520 PSI/Ft

16

fluid that has a gradient of .546 psi/ft

FD = PG .052

FD = .546 .052

FD = 10.5 PPG

PPG

PSI/Ft

PPG

PPG

17

fluid that has a gradient of .104 psi/ft

FD = PG

PPG

PSI/Ft

.052

FD = .104 .052

PPG

FD = 2.0 PPG

PPG

18

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Always use True Vertical Depth (TVD)

Gravity reacts vertically

A

19

#2

HP = Pressure Gradient X TVD

#1

HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD

#4

Fluid Density = HP .052 TVD

#3

TVD = HP Fluid Density .052

20

*Example #4

M Wt = 10.0 PPG

10,000 Ft

TVD

pressure.

21

Formula #1

HP = FD X .052 X TVD

PSI

PPG

Ft

HP = 10.0 X .052 X 10000

HP = 5200 PSI

22

*Example #5

MD = 13500 ft

TVD = 12800 ft

Find the hydrostatic pressure.

23

Formula

HP = FD

PSI

PSI

#1

X .052 X TVD

PPG

PPG

Ft

Ft

HP = 17.8 X .052 X 12800

HP = 11847.68 PSI

HP = 11848 PSI

24

Example #6

You can find hydrostatic pressure at any point in a

well

as long as TVD and density of the fluid is known .

Fluid Density = 11.0 PPG

TVD 5800 FT

Casing Shoe

MD = 10,000 FT

TVD = 9800 FT

25

Formula #1

HP = FD X .052 X

TVD

HP = 11.0 X .052 X TVD

PSI

PPG

Ft

HP = 3317.6 PSI

HP = 3318 PSI

26

Example #7

Sometimes, we need to know fluid height to

get a certain pressure.

Fluid Density = 12.0 PPG

HP = 2160 PSI

? TVD

number.

27

#7

TVD = HP FD .052

Ft

PSI

PPG

TVD = 2160 12.0 .052

TVD =3461.5384 Ft

TVD =3462 Ft

28

Example #8

Sometimes, we need to know fluid density to

get a certain pressure.

Fluid Density = ? PPG

FP = 6500 PSI

tenth.

29

Formula #4

FD = FP .052 TVD

PPG

PSI

Ft

FD = 6500 .052 10000

FD = 12.5 PPG

30

Facts

Fluid seeks a

common level

Diameter does not

affect hydrostatic

pressure

Shape of well does

not affect

hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure

is the force exerted

in a vertical

direction

Hydrostatic

pressure is

expressed in pounds

per square inch (PSI)

Hydrostatic pressure

changes when fluid

level changes

Hydrostatic pressure

changes when fluid

density changes

31

FORMATION

PRESSURE

Formation pressure is the pressure within

the pore spaces of the formation rock.

This pressure can be affected by the

weight of the overburden (rock layers)

above the formation, which exerts pressure

on both the grains and pore fluids.

If pore fluids are free to move, or escape,

the grains lose some of their support and

move closer together. This is called

compaction.

32

OVERBURDEN FACTS

Overburden causes compaction

As overburden increases, the grains move

closer together

During compaction, the pore fluids are often

moved out

If the fluids are trapped, the fluid must

support the overburden

33

DEFINATIONS:

FORCE : the push or pull on an object measured in

pounds

DENSITY: the mass or weight of a substance per unit of

are less than the weight of the pipe.

34

classified as:

Normal: Has pressure gradient equal

Abnormal: Has pressure gradient > .

465 PSI/Ft

Subnormal: Has pressure gradient < .

433 PSI/Ft

35

occur in several ways:

1. As overburden increases and fluids are

overburden. If pressure gradient is > .465

psi/ft, then zone is classified as abnormal.

36

occur in several ways:

37

occur in several ways:

shallower zones can become abnormally

pressured

A. Casing failure in older wells

B. Improper plug and abandonment

operations

C. Poorly implemented cement programs

38

It is more likely that you will drill into a sub normally pressured

zone at shallow depths than at deep depths.

39

40

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

Well control is about controlling formation

pressures.

We primarily do this with liquids in the well.

Sometimes there is a difference between

formation pressure (FP) and hydrostatic

pressure (HP) and this is called differential

pressure.

In some cases, a combination of HP and

back pressure is used to control FP.

41

Differential Pressure

Overbalanced- When you have more

hydrostatic pressure than formation pressure.

BHP > FP

formation pressure than hydrostatic pressure.

BHP < FP

Balanced - When your hydrostatic

pressure and formation pressures are the same.

BHP = FP

42

U - TUBE

43

The space between the drill string and the well bore is called the annulus.

In a well, fluid usually fills the well and string.

THE STRING AND THE ANNULUS ACT LIKE A U SHAPED TUBE.

Annulus

A

N

N

U

L

U

S

D

R

I

L

L

P

I

P

E

A

N

N

U

L

U

S

44

U-Tube

What is U-Tubing?

than the fluid in the string?

45

U TUBE FACTS

If the weight of the fluid in both tubes is

be the same.

be a HP difference (Drilled cuttings in the

annulus can raise the HP in the annulus)

46

higher than SIDPP because the HP in the

annulus is less than the HP in the drillpipe.

47

pressures in wells that are STATIC

or not moving (no circulating)

48

FRICTIONAL

PRESSURE

When objects move against each other, friction

between them resists their movement.

If you slide a box across the floor, friction

requires you to keep pushing to keep the box

moving.

The same thing applies when fluids flow

through pipe.

Friction in the fluid and between fluid and pipe

resists the fluids movement.

If the pipe is very long, a great deal of pressure

may be needed to keep the fluid in motion.

49

FRICTIONAL LOSS

FRICTIONAL LOSS :

The amount of force

lost when

overcoming friction

FRICTIONAL

PRESSURE LOSS :

The frictional loss

that occurs when

moving a fluid

(usually measured

in PSI)

50

Stand pipe

String

51

to overcome frictional pressure loss

(FPL) and move fluid through the well

bore at a given flow rate.

52

fluid through the well bore?

Friction Pressures

Fluid Density

Hydrostatic Pressure

Circulating Pressures Losses

53

Effects of Density on

Circulating Pressures:

It will then begin to drop due to the U-Tube

(less pressure required to move fluid down

string)

Circulating pressure will begin to increase

when the heavier fluid begins up the

annulus

54

BOTTOM HOLE

PRESSURE

ECD is Equivalent Circulating Density

ECD = Present FD + AFPL converted to a

mud weight

EMW is Equivalent Mud Weight

EMW is mud weight that would provide the

same total pressure at a point if mud weight

alone were to provide the pressure

55

hole.

What does the SICP

reveal?

If there were 300 PSI

more of hydrostatic

pressure, the casing

gauge would read 0.

Where does the

pressure at the bottom

of the well come from?

It comes from the HP

plus the applied

pressure.

If the mud weight

were increased to

equal BHP, that is

EMW.

EMW

300 psi

FP = 5200 PSI

56

Example #10

The pressures that comprise equivalent

density when a well is shut in, include the

SICP and the fluid HP.

Calculate EMW if:

SICP = 375 PSI

Measured Depth = 3120 Ft

TVD = 3005 Ft

Present Fluid Density = 8.8 PPG

57

Formula #22

EMW = (SICP .052 TVD) + Present

Fluid Density

EMW = (375 .052 TVD) + Present Fluid

Density

EMW = (375 .052 3005) + Present Fluid

Density

EMW = (375 .052 3005) + 8.8

EMW = 2.3998 + 8.8

EMW = 11.1998 PPG

EMW = 11.2 PPG

58

concerned with:

In a workover / completion the perforations

are a concern

59

IT IS POSSIBLE TO ESTIMATE

BHP BASED ON WELL STATUS.

BHP is the total of ALL

pressures against

the bottom of the hole.

60

EQUATION FOR THE FOLLOWING:

No fluid moving in well, well static:

BHP = HP or

BHP = HP + Gauge Pressure

Well is being circulated:

BHP = HP + AFPL

Circulating using backpressure

BHP = HP + AFPL + Backpressure

Pressure at the shoe while circulating out

a kick

Press. @ the Shoe = HP at the shoe + casing

press.

61

FORMATION

PRESSURE

Overbalanced BHP > FP

Under balanced BHP < FP

Under balanced is only way to get kick!

62

Stand pipe

running, BHP

increases by the

amount of AFPL

created.

String

off, the BHP is reduced

due to the loss of AFPL

63

If BHP is just equal to FP when pump is

off, well may flow.

To prevent this, the mud weight can be

increased to Equivalent Circulating

Density (ECD)

64

Example #11

Calculate ECD when:

Annular Friction Loss = 730 PSI

Zone Measured Depth = 7320 Ft.

Zone TVD = 6985 Ft

Present Fluid Density = 13.8 PPG

65

Formula #21

ECD = (AFPL .052 TVD) + Present

Fluid Density

FD

ECD = (730 .052 6985) + Present

FD

ECD = 2.0098 + 13.8

ECD = 15.8 PPG

66

SWAB: The lowering of hydrostatic

upward movement of tubular and /or

tools. The pipe movement creates a

piston effect pulling formation fluid

into the well bore.

string is lowered too fast.

67

kicks occur while moving the string in

or out of the hole.

TRIPPING

Before tripping out of the hole, it is a

good practice to check the well for flow

to make sure that the well is

overbalanced and stable before

starting the trip.

68

SWAB

When tripping out,

the pipe when pulling up.

If the fluid does not fill

the space below the pipe

fast enough, there is a

SWAB effect.

This creates a suction

force and reduces the

pressure below the string.

If pressure is reduced

enough, fluid is sucked

into the well bore causing

a kick.

69

SWAB

When a trip out of the

reduced in three ways:

1. loss of annular

the pump is shut

down.

2. a drop in the fluid

level due to pipe

displacement

3. upward motion of

pipe (swabbing effect).

70

SWAB

Often, the bit and

bottomhole assembly

will collect a build up

called bit balling.

This causes the

clearances in the

annulus to be reduced

which increases the

probability of

swabing.

71

SURGE

When lowering

string, there is a

surge of pressure on

well bore and down

hole pressures can

increase if fluid does

not have a chance

to get out of the

way.

This can cause fluid

leakage or

formation fracture.

72

pressures are affected

by:

1. Clearance between pipe and the hole

2. Fluid properties

3. Rate of pipe movement

73

CLEARANCE BETWEEN

PIPE AND HOLE

Viscous fluids

in tight holes

increase swab

and surge

pressures.

and larger clearances

lower swab and surge

pressures.

74

RATE OF PIPE

MOVEMENT

Moving the pipe upwards faster than the

fluid can fall below the pipe can cause

swabbing when tripping out of the hole.

Moving the pipe down faster than the fluid

can move out of the way can cause surging

when tripping into the hole.

Slowing the speed of string movement can

minimize swab and surge pressures

75

To compensate for

swabbing sometimes

the weight of the mud

is slightly increased.

This is called a

TRIP MARGIN OR

SAFETY MARGIN

76

TVD x .052

This is additional mud weight that

compensates for the loss in annular

friction loss when the pump is turned

off, as in a trip.

The increase is to the entire fluid

system.

Too large an increase could cause

fluid loss

Too small an increase could allow the

well to kick.

77

tripping out dry with drill pipe and

collars?

The standard practice is to fill up every 5

stands for drill pipe and every stand for

collars.

The reason for only one stand of collars is

that the displacement of collars is greater

than the displacement of drillpipe.

Therefore, the HP lowers faster.

78

Example #16

How many feet of 4 drillpipe could be

pulled dry prior to a bottomhole

pressure drop of 75 psi?

Drill Pipe:

Displacement = .00597

bbls/ft

Capacity = .01422 bbl/ft

Casing 9 5/8:

ID = 8.835

Capacity = 0.07583

bbls/ft

FORMULA:

#37

Max. Lengthft = [(Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Csg. Cap. Pipe Displ)] Pipe Displ.

Dry

79

Max. Length = [(Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Csg. Cap. Pipe Displ)]

Pipe Displ.

Dry

00597)] .00597

= [115.4 X .06986] .00597

= 8.061844 .00597

Max. Length = 1350.3926 or

Max. Length = 1350 ft.

No. of Stands = Max. Length Length per stand

= 1350 93

No. of Stands = 14.5 stands or

No. of Stands = 14

80

# 19

Pressure Drop / ft = Mud Gradient x Pipe

Displacement

Casing Capacity Pipe Displacement

.07583 - .00663

= .6968 x .00663

.07583 - .00663

= .0046197

.06920

= .0667586 psi/ft

= .0667586 x 1000

= 66.76 or 67 psi / 1000 ft

81

Example #19

Pressure Drop / Ft Wet

#50

Pressure Drop / ft = Mud Gradient x (Pipe Displ. + Pipe

Cap.)

Annular Capacity

= (13.4 X .052) x (.00663 + .01421)

.07583 .00663 - .01421

= .6968 x .02084

.05499

= .0145213

.05499

= .2640716 psi/ft

= .2640716 x 1000

= 264 PSI

82

Difference = HP Loss wet HP Loss dry

= 264 67

= 197 PSI

83

FORMATION

PRESSURE

Well control really means controlling

formation pressure.

84

85

Formation

Characteristics

Pores

An opening or

space within a

rock, usually

small and often

filled with fluid

under pressure.

Porosity

Is the ratio of

void (pore)

space to solid

volume.

86

Formation

Characteristics

Permeability

The ability of a

fluid to flow within

the interconnected

pore network of a

porous medium.

The measure of

ease or ability of a

rock to transmit a

one-phase fluid

under conditions

of laminar flow.

87

PRESSURE by the sum of HP and SI

pressure once the well is stabilized.

This means that BHP = FP

FP = HP + SIP

Which pressure do we use?

There are only 2:

1. Casing pressure (SICP)

2. Drill pipe pressure (SIDPP)

3. SIDPP

88

Casing?

1. Mud weight is unknown due to unknown

amount of cuttings in mud, so HP is

unknown.

2. Density of kick is unknown.

3. Can an accurate BHP be calculated?

Drill Pipe?

1. Drill pipe is full of good clean mud.

2. HP can be calculated.

3. There is usually no gas in the drill pipe.

4. Will SIDPP be accurate?

How do I get a SIDPP with a backpressure

valve in the string?

89

DRILL PIPE

400

300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100

0

100

0

90

observe the DP pressure. Also, note

the SICP. Did it move?

DRILL PIPE

400

300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100

0

100

0

91

pressure and the Csg. Pressure. Did

the Csg. Pressure move?

DRILL PIPE

400

300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100

0

100

0

92

gauge breaks back and settles at

200 psi. Did the casing pressure

move?

DRILL PIPE

400

300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100

0

100

0

93

slowly, put pump in gear and then out

of gear. Note gauges. Csg pressure

increased by 100 psi.

DRILL PIPE

400

300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100

0

100

0

94

formation pressure and HP in the

drillstring. So, if there is a float in

the string, you now know how to get

SIDPP.

If:

BHP = FP

and

BHP = HP + SIDPP

then

FP = HP + SIDPP

SIDPP is the only accepted pressure to use

when trying to estimate formation

pressure.

dp

dp

95

with the following data:

Csg. Set at 6500ft. TVD

Well Depth 10,500ft. TVD

SIDPP is 350 psi

SICP is 800 psi

Mud Weight is 11.1 ppg.

Formula #13

FP = HP + SIDPP

FP = (FD x .052 x TVD) + SIDPP

FP = (11.1 x .052 x 10500) + 350

FP = 6060.6 + 350

FP = 6411 PSI

dp

96

pressure it takes to permanently

deform (fail or split) the rock structure

of a formation.

Fracture pressure can be expressed

as a gradient (psi/ft)

a fluid density equivalent (ppg)

calculated total pressure at the

formation (psi).

97

An accurate evaluation of a casing cement job

as well as of the formation is extremely

important during the drilling of a well and for

subsequent work. Good drilling practices and

some regulatory bodies require a formartion

integrity test before drilling more than 50ft

(10ft of new hole) of open hole after drilling

out casing.

The information resulting from Formation

Integrity Tests (FIT) is used throughout the

life of the well and also for nearby wells.

Casing depths, well control options, formation

fracture pressures and limiting fluid weights

may be based of this information.

To determine the strength and integrity of a

formation, a Leak Off Test (LOT) or a

Formation Integrity Test (FIT) may be

performed. Whatever the name, this test is

first: a method of checking the cement seal

between the casing and the formation, and

second: determining the pressure and/or fluid

weight the test zone below the casing can

98

sustain.

Is performed to estimate the maximum pressure or mud

weight that the test point can withstand before formation

breakdown or fracture occurs.

Is performed when it is not acceptable to cause the formation to

fracture or on wells drilled in developed fields where it is not

expected to approach fracture pressures.

The well bore is pressured to a predetermined pressure or fluid

weigh. If the formation can withstand the applied pressure, the

test is called good.

99

INTEGRITY LIMITS

Integrity Fluid Density: Maximum Mud

to calculate Integrity Pressure)

Integrity Pressure: Maximum Allowable

purpose for calculating EIP is to avoid lost

returns that may lead to an underground

blowout.

100

Pressure at the

casing seat (shoe) =

HP at the Shoe +

Imposed Pressure

INTEGRITY FLUID DENSITY AND

ESTIMATED INTEGRITY PRESSURE

#28

MAMW ppg = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density

#29

EIP psi = (MAMW Present Fluid Density) X .052 X TVD

101

Example #21

Find the Maximum Allowable Mud Weight (MAMW)

and Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure

(MAASP) if:

MD = 11226 ft

CSG SHOE DEPTH = 5821 ft TVD

LOT PRESSURE = 1250 psi

LOT FLUID DENSITY = 9.6 ppg

Present Fluid Density = 10.6 ppg

MAMW = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density

MAMW = (1250 .052 5821) + 9.6

MAMW = 4.1296102 + 9.6

MAMW= 13.72961 or 13.7 ppg

MAASP = (MAMW Present FD) x .052 x TVD

MAASP = (13.7 10.6) x .052 x 5821

MAASP = 3.1 x .052 x 5821

MAASP = 938.3452 or 938 psi

102

Example #22

At 11,226, the well kicked. SIDPP IS 100 psi

and SICP is

350 psi. How much more pressure could the

formation take before breaking down?

MD = 11226 ft

CSG SHOE DEPTH =

5821 ft TVD

LOT PRESS. = 1250 psi

LOT FD = 9.6

MAMW = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density

ppg

MAMW = (1250 .052 5821) + 9.6

MAMW = Fluid

4.1296102

+ 9.6 = 10.6ppg

Present

Density

MAMW = 13.72961 or 13.7 ppg

MAASP = (MAMW Present FD) x .052 x TVD

MAASP = (13.7 10.6) x .052 x 5821

MAASP = 3.1 x .052 x 5821

MAASP = 938.3452 or 938 psi

Safety Margin = MAASP Applied Press (SICP).

Safety Margin = 938 350

Safety Margin = 588 psi

103

# 23. Example

Test the well to an equivalent mud weight of

11.5 ppg:

MD = 11226 ft

CSG SHOE DEPTH = 5821 ft TVD

LOT PRESSURE = 1250 PSI

Present Fluid Density = 10.6 ppg

MAASP = (EM Wt Present M Wt) X .052 X TVD

MAASP = (11.5 10.6) X .052 X 5821

MAASP = .9 X .052 X 5821

MAASP = 272.4228 psi or 272 psi

104

Example #11

What will the new pump

pressure be if:

Circulating Pressure is 1000 PSI

Present Fluid Density is 10.0 PPG

New Fluid Density is 11.0

#53

NPP = (New Mud Weight Old Mud Weight) X Present Pump

Pressure

105

PPP NPP = (11.0 OMW) X PPP

NPP = (11.0 10.0) X PPP

NPP = (11.0 10.0) X 1000

NPP = 1.1 X 1000

NPP = 1100 PSI

106

Example #12

What will the new

Circulating Pressure is 1000 PSI

pump

pressure

be

if:

Old Strokes Per Minute is 20

New Strokes Per Minute is 35

#52

NPP = (NSPM OSPM) X Present Pump Pressure

107

X

PPP

NPP = (35 OSPM) X PPP

NPP

NPP

NPP

NPP

NPP

NPP

=

=

=

=

=

=

(35 20) X 1000

1.75 X 1000

1.75 X 1.75 X 1000

3.0625 X 1000

3063 PSI

increases by approximately 4 times.

108

109

Gas is a fluid

Gas compresses easily

Gas volume and density is affected by

increases

2. As temperature increases, volume increases

as long

as pressure is held constant

3. If volume is held constant, as temperature

increases, pressure will increase.

110

Bottom-Hole Pressure

the well is not flowing.

111

Bottom-Hole Pressure

running then BHP is the

sum of AFPL and

HP in

the well.

112

Bottom-Hole Pressure

while circulating then the BHP

will be the sum of HP + AFPL +

Back Pressure

113

Bottom-Hole Pressure

114

changes?

Hydrostatic Pressure = Fluid Wt. Inc.ppg x 0.052 x Depth ft, TVD

Fluid Density ppg

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

10.0

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

1250

1241

1180

1150

1120

1090

1059

1029

999

969

938

115

From the previous discussions, it should be apparent that any applied pressure

raises the total pressure at a given point. If the applied pressure is known, then

it can be calculated to an equivalent weight.

The equivalent mud weight (EMW) is also the summation of all pressures

( hydrostatic pressure, choke or back-pressure, applied pressure, kick pressure,

circulating pressure losses, etc.) at a given depth or zone and is expressed as

a fluid density.

( Casing Pressure psi 0.052 Depth ft./ tvd. ) + Present Fluid Density ppg

= 2.4 + 8.8

= 11.2 PPG

test a pre-determined EMW at a given depth:

( EMW ppg Present Fluid Density ppg ) x 0.052 x Depth of Test ft. tvd

Test Pressure psi = (13.4 - 9.1) x 0.052 x 5,745

= 4.3 x 0.052 x 5,745

= 1285 psi

116

Pressure- Losses/Circulating

Friction is the resistance to movement. It takes force, or pressure, to overcome friction to get

anything to move.

The amount of force used to overcome friction is called frictional loss and can be measured in

many ways. Thousands of psi of pressure can be lost to the wells circulating system as fluid is

pumped through surface lines, down the string, and up the annulus.

When the well is being circulated, bottom-hole pressure is increased by the amount of friction

overcome in the annulus. When pumps are shut off, well-bore pressure is reduced because no

frictional force is being overcome.

Since friction adds pressure to the well-bore, it increased the effective weight, or the equivalent

circulating density (ECD). The total value is the equivalent of bottom-hole pressure with the

pump on.

117

AFL is the only friction pressure felt on the bottom of the well.

118

to the well bore, it increases the

effective weight, or the

equivalent circulating density

(ECD). The total value is

equivalent of bottomhole

pressure with the pump on.

ECD = (AFL 0.052 TVD ft.) + PMW ppg

119

pressure

Swabbing occurs because the fluid in the well does not drop

as fast as the string is being pulled.

Surge pressure occurs when the string is lowered to fast and

pressure is created because the fluid does not have a chance to

get out of the way.

120

The conversion factor used to convert density to pressure gradient in the English system is 0.052. The way 0.052 is

derived is by using a one foot cube, ( one foot wide by one foot long by one foot high). It takes about 7.48 gallons to fill

the cube with fluid. It the fluid weighs one pound per gallon, and you have 7.48 gallons, then the total weight of the cube

is 7.48 pounds per cubic foot. The weight of one of these square inches, one foot in height, can be found by dividing the

total weight of the cube by 144:

7.48 144 = 0.051944 psi/ft.

The conversion factor 0.052 is commonly used for oilfield calculations.

What is the pressure gradient of fresh water which weighs 8.33 ppg?

What is the pressure gradient of a fluid that weighs 9.5 ppg?

What is the fluid density of a pressure gradient of 0.572 psi/ft?

121

TVD vs. MD

Once we know how to find pressure exerted per foot, we can

calculate the hydrostatic pressure at a given depth. All we have

to do is multiply the pressure gradient by the number of feet to

that vertical depth. Now we have to know the distinction

between measured depth (MD) and true vertical depth (TVD).

MD=

MD Is used to calculate volume and strokes

TVD=

TVD Is used to calculate hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic pressure is the total fluid pressure created

by the weight of a column of fluid, acting on any given

point in a well. Hydro means water, or fluid, that exerts

pressure like water, and static means not moving. So

hydrostatic pressure is the pressure created by the

density (weight) and height of a stationary (not moving)

column of fluid.

OR

Hydrostatic Pressure = Pressure Gradient X TV Depth

122

U-Tube

What is U-Tubing?

What will happen if fluid in the annulus is heavier

than the fluid in the string?

downward will flow into the string, displacing some of the

lighter fluid out of the string, causing a backflow at the

surface. When there is a difference in the hydrostatic

pressures, the fluid will try to reach a balance point.

Gain in pits ppg = (Slug Weight ppg Annulus Weight ppg ) x Volume of Slug bbls

Pipe Capacity bbls/ft Annulus Weight ppg x Pipe Capacity bbls/ft

123

2 7/8

124

Example #12

What is the Closed End Displacement of the pipe?

What is the total displacement if the length of the

pipe is 1000 ft.?

CED bbl/ft = OD 1029.4

= 2.875 1029.4

= (2.875 X 2.875) 1029.4

= 8.265625 1029.4

CED

= .00803 bbl/ft

Total Displacement bbls = Displacement X

Length

= .00803 X 1000

Total Displacement = 8.03 bbls or

Total Displacement = 8.0 bbls

125

126

2.151

127

* Example #13

What is the capacity of the pipe?

What is the volume if the length of

the pipe is 1000 ft.?

Capacity

= ID 1029.4

= 2.151 1029.4

= (2.151 X 2.151) 1029.4

= 4.626801 1029.4

Capacity = .00449 bbl/ft

Volume bbls = Capacity X Length

= .00449 X 1000

Volume = 4.49 bbls or

Volume = 4.5 bbls

bbl/ft

128

Example #14

What is the displacement of this pipe?

What is the volume of 1000 ft. of

displacement?

129

2.875

2.151

130

Metal Displacement = (2.875 - 2.151)

1029.4

= [(2.875 x 2.875) (2.151 x 2.151)]

1029.4

= [8.265625 4.626801] 1029.4

= 3.638824 1029.4

Metal Displacement = .00353 bbl/ft

Total Displ. bbls = Displacement bbl/ft X

Length ft

= .00353 X 1000

Total Displ. = 3.53 bbls or

= 3.5 bbls

131

132

Pipe

ID = 2.151

OD = 2 7/8

Hole

ID = 4 5/8

Depth = 1000 ft.

133

#7

1029.4

Volume

bbls = Capacity X Length

Annular Capacity bbl/ft = (4.625 - 2.875) 1029.4

= [(4.625 X 4.625) (2.875 X 2.875)]

1029.4

= [21.390625 8.265625] 1029.4

= 13.125 1029.4

Annular Capacity bbl/ft = .01275 bbl/ft

Annular Volume

bbls

= .01275 X 1000

Annular Volume

bbls

= 12.75 bbls. Or

Annular Volume

bbls

= 12.8 bbls

134

2 7/8

135

Example #9

Calculate the HP in a well when a lighter

spacer is added.

Fluid Density = 12.0 PPG

Fluid Level = 10,000 Ft. TVD

Spacer Density = 9.8 ppg

Vertical Depth of Spacer = 500 Ft

136

original HP.

HP = FD X .052 X TVD

HP = 12.0 X .052 X TVD

HP = 12.0 X .052 X 10000

HP = 6240 PSI

137

the spacer pumped.

HP = FD X .052 X TVD

HP = 9.8 X .052 X TVD

HP = 9.8 X .052 X 500

HP = 255 PSI

138

the original fluid at the

new height.

HP = FD X .052 X TVD

HP = 12.0 X .052 X TVD

HP = 12.0 X .052 X 9500

HP = 5928 PSI

139

height and the HP of the

spacer.

HP = HP at 9500 ft + HP of

psi

psi

psi

Spacer

HP = 5928 + HP of Spacer

psi

psi

HP = 5928 + 255

psi

HP = 6183 psi

psi

140

Example #10

If we know the depths and

densities of the fluids in

the annulus and the string,

we can calculate the

pressure differential.

STRING

Density : 10.0

PPG

ANNULUS

Density : 10.2

PPG

Depth : 10,000

Ft.

Depth : 10,000

Ft.

141

String

HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD

HP = 10 X .052 X 10000

HP = 5200 PSI

142

Annulus

HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD

HP = 10.2 X .052 X 10000

HP = 5304 PSI

143

trying to push the fluid into the

tubing. If not stopped, the fluid will

flow out of the string until the

pressures are equalized and the fluid

level in the annulus gets lower.

The annulus is not full, so the HP of

5300 PSI is lost.

144

U-Tube

What is U-Tubing?

than the fluid in the string?

The heavier fluid in the annulus exerting more pressure

downward will flow into the string, displacing some of

the lighter fluid out of the string, causing a flow at the

surface. When there is a difference in the hydrostatic

pressures, the fluid will try to reach a balance point.

145

146

147

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Always use True Vertical Depth (TVD)

Gravity reacts vertically

148

149

U - TUBING

the fluid will tend to flow until the pressure

on both sides of the u-tube is the same.

150

has to be overcome in

order to keep the fluid in

motion depends on many

factors:

1. Density of the fluid

2. Type and roughness of surfaces making

contact

3. Surface area in contact

4. Direction and velocity of fluid

5. Thermal and mud properties

151

classified as:

Normal: Has pressure gradient equal

Abnormal: Has pressure gradient > .

465 PSI/Ft

Subnormal: Has pressure gradient < .

433 PSI/Ft

152

occur in several ways:

1. As overburden increases and

support overburden. If pressure

gradient is > .465 psi/ft, then zone is

classified as abnormal.

153

occur in several ways:

154

occur in several ways:

shallower zones can become abnormally

pressured

A. Casing failure in older wells

B. Improper plug and abandonment

operations

C. Poorly implemented cement programs

155

It is more likely that you will drill into a sub normally pressured

zone at shallow depths than at deep depths.

156

157

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

Well control is about controlling formation

pressures.

We primarily do this with liquids in the well.

Sometimes there is a difference between

formation pressure (FP) and hydrostatic

pressure (HP) and this is called differential

pressure.

In some cases, a combination of HP and

back pressure is used to control FP.

158

Differential Pressure

Overbalanced- When you have more

hydrostatic pressure than formation pressure.

BHP > FP

formation pressure than hydrostatic pressure.

BHP < FP

Balanced - When your hydrostatic

pressure and formation pressures are the same.

BHP = FP

159

BUOYANCY

When an object is placed in a fluid, the

net force equal to the weight of the fluid

displaced.

The upward force is called BUOYANCY

160

BUOYANCY

One cubic foot of wood weighs about

sink until it displaced about 31# of water.

foot of wood, the wood floats.

161

BUOYANCY

The net buoyancy pushing up on the iron cube is

62.3 pounds

The iron cube doesnt float and will appear to weigh

approximately 62 pounds less or about 428 pounds.

162

BUOYANCY FORMULA

#56

B = [(65.4 FD ) 65.4] X PW

PPG

PPF

EXAMPLE: #9

What is the buoyed weight of 93 ft. of 2 3/8 tubing (4.7

PPF) stripped dry into a well that has 12.2 ppg brine in

the casing?

BWt = [(65.4 12.2) 65.4] X 4.7

= [53.2 65.4] X 4.7

= .8134556 X 4.7

BWt = 3.8 PPF

B = 353 lbs.

163

WELL IT WILL APPEAR TO WEIGH LESS.

164

Example #17

#38

Max. Length =[ (Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Ann. Capacity)] (Pipe Displ.+ Pipe

Max. Length = [(75 .052 12.5) X (.07583-.00597-.01422)]

Cap.)

(.00597 + .01422)

= 6.420856 .02019

Max. Length = 318.02 ft. or

Max. Length = 318 ft.

pulled?

No. of Stands = Max. Length Length per stand

= 318 93

No. of Stands = 3.41 stands or

165

No. of Stands = 3

*Example #18.

What is the difference in hydrostatic

pressure per 1000 ft. of pipe between

making a wet trip and a dry trip out

the well described below?

Mud weight: 13.4 PPG

Casing: 9 5/8, 8.835 ID, .07583 bbl/ft

capacity

Drillpipe: 4 , 3.826 ID, .01421 bbl/ft

capacity

.00663 bbl/ft displacement

This information is good for both example #18

and #19.

166

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