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MATH FACTS:

Exponent : In 4 the 2 is the exponent.

The exponent will tell you how many


times to multiply a number by itself. (4
= 4 x 4)
Fractions: To convert a fraction to a
decimal, divide the bottom number
(denominator) into the top number
(numerator). (5/8 = 5 8, which = .625)
To convert 10 3/8 to a decimal, divide 3
by 8 and add 10. (10 3/8 = 3 8 = .375
+ 10 = 10.375)

GUIDELINES FOR
ROUNDING

1. Round up if the NEXT number is greater


than or equal to 5.
2. Round strokes to the nearest whole
stroke. (1281.9 strokes = 1282 strokes)
3. Round barrels up to the nearest tenth.
(25.68 bbls =25.7 bbls.)
4. Express pressures to the nearest whole
psi. (1256.7 psi = 1257 psi.)
5. All capacities and displacements should
be carried out to 5 decimal places and
expressed as bbls/ft. (.0145561 bbl/ft
= .01456 bbl/ft)
2

GUIDELINES FOR
ROUNDING
1. Generally, round mud weight to the

nearest .1 ppg. (12.37ppg = 12.4 ppg)

2. If the mud weight is an integrity mud

weight or maximum mud weight, NEVER!


round up.
13.32 ppg = ?
11.27 ppg = ?
3. If the mud weight is kill mud, ALWAYS!
round up.
(If the EIFD allows it, add .1 ppg, then
round)
10.66 ppg = ?
14.8024 ppg = ?

Remember to think downhole. The


concepts provided in this section
covers
the foundation for good well
control.

Solid objects exerts force in a downward direction due to the


pull of gravity.
This force is the objects weight

Fluid has weight and also exerts pressure against the


Sides of its container.

Fluids Exert Pressure. This pressure is the


result of:

The density of the fluid


The height of the fluid column

To find out how much pressure fluid


exerts for each unit of length we use a
pressure gradient.

0 psi

0 ft.

Take a fluid that has some weight


8

0 psi
.433 psi

0 ft.
1 ft

At one foot, the weight of the water is .433 psi.

0 psi

0 ft.

.433 psi

1 ft

.866 psi

2 ft

At two feet, the weight of the water is .866 psi.

10

0 psi
.433 psi

0 ft.

.866 psi

2 ft

1.299 psi

3 ft

1 ft

At three feet, the weight of the water is 1.299 psi.


Each foot increases by .433 psi. This is called the
FLUID GRADIENT
11

0 psi
.433 psi

0 ft.

.866 psi

2 ft

1.299 psi

3 ft

1 ft

3.031 psi

7 ft

What is the weight of the water at 7 feet?


Each foot increases by .433 psi. This is called the
FLUID GRADIENT
12

Gradient is normally expressed as


the force which fluid exerts per
foot of vertical depth; it is
measured in pounds per square
inch per foot (psi/ft)

To get the pressure gradient we must


convert the fluids density in pounds per
gallon to pounds per square inch per foot
(psi/ft)
Express gradient in three decimal places.

13

.052

14

GRADIENT FORMULAS
#5
Pressure Gradient = Fluid Density
X .052

#5a
Fluid Density = Pressure Gradient
.052
15

*#1. What is the fluid gradient


of water weighing 10.0 PPG?
Pressure Gradient = Fluid
Density X .052
PSI/Ft
PSI/Ft

PPG
PPG

PG = 10.0 X .052
PG = .520 PSI/Ft

16

#2. What is the fluid density of a


fluid that has a gradient of .546 psi/ft

FD = PG .052
FD = .546 .052
FD = 10.5 PPG
PPG

PSI/Ft

PPG

PPG

17

#3. What is the fluid density of a


fluid that has a gradient of .104 psi/ft

FD = PG
PPG

PSI/Ft

.052

FD = .104 .052
PPG

FD = 2.0 PPG
PPG

18

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Always use True Vertical Depth (TVD)
Gravity reacts vertically
A

19

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE FORMULAS


#2
HP = Pressure Gradient X TVD
#1
HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD
#4
Fluid Density = HP .052 TVD
#3
TVD = HP Fluid Density .052
20

*Example #4

M Wt = 10.0 PPG

10,000 Ft
TVD

Find the hydrostatic


pressure.

21

Formula #1
HP = FD X .052 X TVD
PSI

PPG

Ft

HP = 10.0 X .052 X TVD


HP = 10.0 X .052 X 10000
HP = 5200 PSI
22

*Example #5

M Wt. = 17.8 ppg

MD = 13500 ft
TVD = 12800 ft
Find the hydrostatic pressure.
23

Formula
HP = FD
PSI
PSI

#1
X .052 X TVD

PPG
PPG

Ft
Ft

HP = 17.8 X .052 X TVD


HP = 17.8 X .052 X 12800
HP = 11847.68 PSI
HP = 11848 PSI
24

Example #6
You can find hydrostatic pressure at any point in a
well
as long as TVD and density of the fluid is known .
Fluid Density = 11.0 PPG

TVD 5800 FT
Casing Shoe

MD = 10,000 FT
TVD = 9800 FT

What is the HP at the casing

25

Formula #1
HP = FD X .052 X
TVD
HP = 11.0 X .052 X TVD
PSI

PPG

Ft

HP = 11.0 X .052 X 5800


HP = 3317.6 PSI
HP = 3318 PSI
26

Example #7
Sometimes, we need to know fluid height to
get a certain pressure.
Fluid Density = 12.0 PPG
HP = 2160 PSI

? TVD

Round off to the nearest whole


number.

27

#7
TVD = HP FD .052
Ft

PSI

PPG

TVD = 2160 FD .052


TVD = 2160 12.0 .052
TVD =3461.5384 Ft
TVD =3462 Ft
28

Example #8
Sometimes, we need to know fluid density to
get a certain pressure.
Fluid Density = ? PPG
FP = 6500 PSI

10,000 FT. TVD

Round off to the nearest


tenth.

29

Formula #4
FD = FP .052 TVD
PPG

PSI

Ft

FD = 6500 .052 TVD


FD = 6500 .052 10000
FD = 12.5 PPG

30

Facts
Fluid seeks a

common level
Diameter does not
affect hydrostatic
pressure
Shape of well does
not affect
hydrostatic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
is the force exerted
in a vertical
direction

Hydrostatic

pressure is
expressed in pounds
per square inch (PSI)
Hydrostatic pressure
changes when fluid
level changes
Hydrostatic pressure
changes when fluid
density changes

31

FORMATION
PRESSURE
Formation pressure is the pressure within
the pore spaces of the formation rock.
This pressure can be affected by the
weight of the overburden (rock layers)
above the formation, which exerts pressure
on both the grains and pore fluids.
If pore fluids are free to move, or escape,
the grains lose some of their support and
move closer together. This is called
compaction.

32

OVERBURDEN FACTS
Overburden causes compaction
As overburden increases, the grains move

closer together
During compaction, the pore fluids are often
moved out
If the fluids are trapped, the fluid must
support the overburden

33

DEFINATIONS:
FORCE : the push or pull on an object measured in

pounds

PRESSURE: the measure of force on a given area

measured in pounds per square inch (PSI)

FLUID: anything that flows


DENSITY: the mass or weight of a substance per unit of

volume (i.e. pounds per gallon or PPG)

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE: Pressure in a column of fluid

at rest (not flowing or being circulated)

STRIPPING: Running into or out of a well against

pressure, through a closed preventer, when the forces up


are less than the weight of the pipe.
34

Formations vary and are


classified as:
Normal: Has pressure gradient equal

to water, .433 to .465 PSI/Ft


Abnormal: Has pressure gradient > .

465 PSI/Ft
Subnormal: Has pressure gradient < .

433 PSI/Ft
35

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:
1. As overburden increases and fluids are

trapped, pore fluid helps support


overburden. If pressure gradient is > .465
psi/ft, then zone is classified as abnormal.

36

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:

37

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:

3. When high pressure fluids from deeper

zones migrate into shallower zones,


shallower zones can become abnormally
pressured
A. Casing failure in older wells
B. Improper plug and abandonment

operations
C. Poorly implemented cement programs

38

It is more likely that you will drill into a sub normally pressured
zone at shallow depths than at deep depths.

39

40

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
Well control is about controlling formation
pressures.
We primarily do this with liquids in the well.
Sometimes there is a difference between
formation pressure (FP) and hydrostatic
pressure (HP) and this is called differential
pressure.
In some cases, a combination of HP and
back pressure is used to control FP.

41

Differential Pressure
Overbalanced- When you have more
hydrostatic pressure than formation pressure.

BHP > FP

Underbalanced - When you have more


formation pressure than hydrostatic pressure.

BHP < FP
Balanced - When your hydrostatic
pressure and formation pressures are the same.

BHP = FP

Could cause swabbing

42

U - TUBE

43

The space between the drill string and the well bore is called the annulus.
In a well, fluid usually fills the well and string.
THE STRING AND THE ANNULUS ACT LIKE A U SHAPED TUBE.

Annulus

A
N
N
U
L
U
S

D
R
I
L
L
P
I
P
E

A
N
N
U
L
U
S

44

U-Tube
What is U-Tubing?

What will happen if fluid in the annulus is heavier


than the fluid in the string?

45

U TUBE FACTS
If the weight of the fluid in both tubes is

the same, the HP in both columns should


be the same.

If a higher density fluid is in one tube, there will


be a HP difference (Drilled cuttings in the
annulus can raise the HP in the annulus)

46

In a shut-in well, the SICP is generally


higher than SIDPP because the HP in the
annulus is less than the HP in the drillpipe.

47

Up to now, weve talked about


pressures in wells that are STATIC
or not moving (no circulating)

48

FRICTIONAL
PRESSURE
When objects move against each other, friction
between them resists their movement.
If you slide a box across the floor, friction
requires you to keep pushing to keep the box
moving.
The same thing applies when fluids flow
through pipe.
Friction in the fluid and between fluid and pipe
resists the fluids movement.
If the pipe is very long, a great deal of pressure
may be needed to keep the fluid in motion.
49

FRICTIONAL LOSS
FRICTIONAL LOSS :
The amount of force
lost when
overcoming friction

FRICTIONAL
PRESSURE LOSS :
The frictional loss
that occurs when
moving a fluid
(usually measured
in PSI)

50

Stand pipe

String

51

The exact amount of pressure required


to overcome frictional pressure loss
(FPL) and move fluid through the well
bore at a given flow rate.

52

What influences the movement of


fluid through the well bore?
Friction Pressures
Fluid Density
Hydrostatic Pressure
Circulating Pressures Losses

53

Effects of Density on
Circulating Pressures:

Initially, the circulating pressure of a higher

density fluid will rise.


It will then begin to drop due to the U-Tube
(less pressure required to move fluid down
string)
Circulating pressure will begin to increase
when the heavier fluid begins up the
annulus

54

BOTTOM HOLE
PRESSURE
ECD is Equivalent Circulating Density
ECD = Present FD + AFPL converted to a

mud weight
EMW is Equivalent Mud Weight
EMW is mud weight that would provide the
same total pressure at a point if mud weight
alone were to provide the pressure

55

There is a kick in the

hole.
What does the SICP
reveal?
If there were 300 PSI
more of hydrostatic
pressure, the casing
gauge would read 0.
Where does the
pressure at the bottom
of the well come from?
It comes from the HP
plus the applied
pressure.
If the mud weight
were increased to
equal BHP, that is
EMW.

EMW
300 psi

FP = 5200 PSI

56

Example #10
The pressures that comprise equivalent
density when a well is shut in, include the
SICP and the fluid HP.
Calculate EMW if:
SICP = 375 PSI
Measured Depth = 3120 Ft
TVD = 3005 Ft
Present Fluid Density = 8.8 PPG

57

Formula #22
EMW = (SICP .052 TVD) + Present
Fluid Density
EMW = (375 .052 TVD) + Present Fluid
Density
EMW = (375 .052 3005) + Present Fluid
Density
EMW = (375 .052 3005) + 8.8
EMW = 2.3998 + 8.8
EMW = 11.1998 PPG
EMW = 11.2 PPG
58

The pressure we are most


concerned with:

Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP)


In a workover / completion the perforations

are a concern

59

IT IS POSSIBLE TO ESTIMATE
BHP BASED ON WELL STATUS.
BHP is the total of ALL
pressures against
the bottom of the hole.

60

EXPRESS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE IN AN


EQUATION FOR THE FOLLOWING:
No fluid moving in well, well static:
BHP = HP or
BHP = HP + Gauge Pressure
Well is being circulated:
BHP = HP + AFPL
Circulating using backpressure
BHP = HP + AFPL + Backpressure
Pressure at the shoe while circulating out

a kick
Press. @ the Shoe = HP at the shoe + casing

press.
61

FORMATION
PRESSURE

Balanced Well BHP = FP


Overbalanced BHP > FP
Under balanced BHP < FP
Under balanced is only way to get kick!
62

Stand pipe

When the pump is


running, BHP
increases by the
amount of AFPL
created.

String

When the pump is turned


off, the BHP is reduced
due to the loss of AFPL

63

When BHP = FP , the well is balanced.


If BHP is just equal to FP when pump is
off, well may flow.
To prevent this, the mud weight can be
increased to Equivalent Circulating
Density (ECD)

64

Example #11
Calculate ECD when:
Annular Friction Loss = 730 PSI
Zone Measured Depth = 7320 Ft.
Zone TVD = 6985 Ft
Present Fluid Density = 13.8 PPG

65

Formula #21
ECD = (AFPL .052 TVD) + Present
Fluid Density

ECD = (730 .052 TVD) + Present


FD
ECD = (730 .052 6985) + Present
FD

ECD = (730 .052 6985) + 13.8


ECD = 2.0098 + 13.8
ECD = 15.8 PPG
66

SWAB AND SURGE


SWAB: The lowering of hydrostatic

pressure in the well bore due to


upward movement of tubular and /or
tools. The pipe movement creates a
piston effect pulling formation fluid
into the well bore.

SURGE: A rapid increase in pressure

down hole that occurs when the drill


string is lowered too fast.

67

In a normally pressured well, most


kicks occur while moving the string in
or out of the hole.

TRIPPING
Before tripping out of the hole, it is a
good practice to check the well for flow
to make sure that the well is
overbalanced and stable before
starting the trip.

68

SWAB
When tripping out,

pressure is reduced below


the pipe when pulling up.
If the fluid does not fill
the space below the pipe
fast enough, there is a
SWAB effect.
This creates a suction
force and reduces the
pressure below the string.
If pressure is reduced
enough, fluid is sucked
into the well bore causing
a kick.

69

SWAB
When a trip out of the

well begins, BHP is


reduced in three ways:
1. loss of annular

friction pressure when


the pump is shut
down.
2. a drop in the fluid
level due to pipe
displacement
3. upward motion of
pipe (swabbing effect).

70

SWAB
Often, the bit and

bottomhole assembly
will collect a build up
called bit balling.
This causes the
clearances in the
annulus to be reduced
which increases the
probability of
swabing.

71

SURGE
When lowering

string, there is a
surge of pressure on
well bore and down
hole pressures can
increase if fluid does
not have a chance
to get out of the
way.
This can cause fluid
leakage or
formation fracture.
72

Both Swab and Surge


pressures are affected
by:
1. Clearance between pipe and the hole
2. Fluid properties
3. Rate of pipe movement

73

CLEARANCE BETWEEN
PIPE AND HOLE
Viscous fluids

in tight holes
increase swab
and surge
pressures.

Less viscous fluids


and larger clearances
lower swab and surge
pressures.

74

RATE OF PIPE
MOVEMENT
Moving the pipe upwards faster than the
fluid can fall below the pipe can cause
swabbing when tripping out of the hole.
Moving the pipe down faster than the fluid
can move out of the way can cause surging
when tripping into the hole.
Slowing the speed of string movement can
minimize swab and surge pressures

75

To compensate for
swabbing sometimes
the weight of the mud
is slightly increased.
This is called a
TRIP MARGIN OR
SAFETY MARGIN
76

Cont. from Trip Margin

Trip Margin = AFPL or (Safety Margin)


TVD x .052
This is additional mud weight that
compensates for the loss in annular
friction loss when the pump is turned
off, as in a trip.
The increase is to the entire fluid
system.
Too large an increase could cause
fluid loss
Too small an increase could allow the
well to kick.
77

How often do you fill up when


tripping out dry with drill pipe and
collars?
The standard practice is to fill up every 5
stands for drill pipe and every stand for
collars.
The reason for only one stand of collars is
that the displacement of collars is greater
than the displacement of drillpipe.
Therefore, the HP lowers faster.

78

Example #16
How many feet of 4 drillpipe could be
pulled dry prior to a bottomhole
pressure drop of 75 psi?
Drill Pipe:
Displacement = .00597
bbls/ft
Capacity = .01422 bbl/ft

Casing 9 5/8:

ID = 8.835
Capacity = 0.07583
bbls/ft

Fluid density = 12.5 ppg


FORMULA:
#37
Max. Lengthft = [(Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Csg. Cap. Pipe Displ)] Pipe Displ.
Dry
79

Max. Length = [(Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Csg. Cap. Pipe Displ)]
Pipe Displ.
Dry

Max. Length = [(75 .052 12.5) X (.07583 - .


00597)] .00597
= [115.4 X .06986] .00597
= 8.061844 .00597
Max. Length = 1350.3926 or
Max. Length = 1350 ft.

At 93 ft. per stand, how many stands can be pulled?


No. of Stands = Max. Length Length per stand
= 1350 93
No. of Stands = 14.5 stands or
No. of Stands = 14
80

Pressure Drop / ft Dry


# 19
Pressure Drop / ft = Mud Gradient x Pipe
Displacement
Casing Capacity Pipe Displacement

PD/F = (13.4 x .052) x .00663


.07583 - .00663
= .6968 x .00663
.07583 - .00663
= .0046197
.06920
= .0667586 psi/ft
= .0667586 x 1000
= 66.76 or 67 psi / 1000 ft
81

Example #19
Pressure Drop / Ft Wet
#50
Pressure Drop / ft = Mud Gradient x (Pipe Displ. + Pipe
Cap.)
Annular Capacity
= (13.4 X .052) x (.00663 + .01421)
.07583 .00663 - .01421
= .6968 x .02084
.05499
= .0145213
.05499
= .2640716 psi/ft
= .2640716 x 1000
= 264 PSI

82

Difference in HP loss per 1000 feet


Difference = HP Loss wet HP Loss dry
= 264 67
= 197 PSI

83

FORMATION
PRESSURE
Well control really means controlling
formation pressure.

84

85

Formation
Characteristics
Pores
An opening or
space within a
rock, usually
small and often
filled with fluid
under pressure.
Porosity
Is the ratio of
void (pore)
space to solid
volume.
86

Formation
Characteristics
Permeability
The ability of a
fluid to flow within
the interconnected
pore network of a
porous medium.
The measure of
ease or ability of a
rock to transmit a
one-phase fluid
under conditions
of laminar flow.

87

We can estimate FORMATION


PRESSURE by the sum of HP and SI
pressure once the well is stabilized.
This means that BHP = FP
FP = HP + SIP
Which pressure do we use?
There are only 2:
1. Casing pressure (SICP)
2. Drill pipe pressure (SIDPP)
3. SIDPP
88

Casing?
1. Mud weight is unknown due to unknown
amount of cuttings in mud, so HP is
unknown.
2. Density of kick is unknown.
3. Can an accurate BHP be calculated?
Drill Pipe?
1. Drill pipe is full of good clean mud.
2. HP can be calculated.
3. There is usually no gas in the drill pipe.
4. Will SIDPP be accurate?
How do I get a SIDPP with a backpressure
valve in the string?
89

Note SICP and SIDPP.


DRILL PIPE

400
300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100
0

100
0

90

With the pump, roll it quickly and


observe the DP pressure. Also, note
the SICP. Did it move?
DRILL PIPE

400
300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100
0

100
0

91

Roll the pump again and note the DP


pressure and the Csg. Pressure. Did
the Csg. Pressure move?
DRILL PIPE

400
300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100
0

100
0

92

Roll the pump again. This time the


gauge breaks back and settles at
200 psi. Did the casing pressure
move?
DRILL PIPE

400
300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100
0

100
0

93

If you have a pump that cant be rolled


slowly, put pump in gear and then out
of gear. Note gauges. Csg pressure
increased by 100 psi.
DRILL PIPE

400
300

CASING

500

400

500

300

200

200

100
0

100
0

94

The SIDPP is the difference between


formation pressure and HP in the
drillstring. So, if there is a float in
the string, you now know how to get
SIDPP.
If:
BHP = FP
and
BHP = HP + SIDPP
then
FP = HP + SIDPP
SIDPP is the only accepted pressure to use
when trying to estimate formation
pressure.
dp

dp

95

*20. Find the estimated formation pressure in a well


with the following data:
Csg. Set at 6500ft. TVD
Well Depth 10,500ft. TVD
SIDPP is 350 psi
SICP is 800 psi
Mud Weight is 11.1 ppg.
Formula #13
FP = HP + SIDPP
FP = (FD x .052 x TVD) + SIDPP
FP = (11.1 x .052 x 10500) + 350
FP = 6060.6 + 350
FP = 6411 PSI
dp

96

Fracture pressure is the amount of


pressure it takes to permanently
deform (fail or split) the rock structure
of a formation.
Fracture pressure can be expressed
as a gradient (psi/ft)
a fluid density equivalent (ppg)
calculated total pressure at the
formation (psi).

97

Formation Integrity Tests


An accurate evaluation of a casing cement job
as well as of the formation is extremely
important during the drilling of a well and for
subsequent work. Good drilling practices and
some regulatory bodies require a formartion
integrity test before drilling more than 50ft
(10ft of new hole) of open hole after drilling
out casing.
The information resulting from Formation
Integrity Tests (FIT) is used throughout the
life of the well and also for nearby wells.
Casing depths, well control options, formation
fracture pressures and limiting fluid weights
may be based of this information.
To determine the strength and integrity of a
formation, a Leak Off Test (LOT) or a
Formation Integrity Test (FIT) may be
performed. Whatever the name, this test is
first: a method of checking the cement seal
between the casing and the formation, and
second: determining the pressure and/or fluid
weight the test zone below the casing can
98
sustain.

Leak-Off Test (LOT)


Is performed to estimate the maximum pressure or mud
weight that the test point can withstand before formation
breakdown or fracture occurs.

Limited Integrity Test


Is performed when it is not acceptable to cause the formation to
fracture or on wells drilled in developed fields where it is not
expected to approach fracture pressures.
The well bore is pressured to a predetermined pressure or fluid
weigh. If the formation can withstand the applied pressure, the
test is called good.
99

INTEGRITY LIMITS
Integrity Fluid Density: Maximum Mud

Weight or Fracture Mud Weight (We use this


to calculate Integrity Pressure)
Integrity Pressure: Maximum Allowable

Surface Pressure (MASP) (The primary


purpose for calculating EIP is to avoid lost
returns that may lead to an underground
blowout.

100

Pressure at the
casing seat (shoe) =
HP at the Shoe +
Imposed Pressure

FORMULAS TO FIND ESTIMATED


INTEGRITY FLUID DENSITY AND
ESTIMATED INTEGRITY PRESSURE

#28
MAMW ppg = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density
#29
EIP psi = (MAMW Present Fluid Density) X .052 X TVD
101

Example #21
Find the Maximum Allowable Mud Weight (MAMW)
and Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure
(MAASP) if:
MD = 11226 ft
CSG SHOE DEPTH = 5821 ft TVD
LOT PRESSURE = 1250 psi
LOT FLUID DENSITY = 9.6 ppg
Present Fluid Density = 10.6 ppg
MAMW = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density
MAMW = (1250 .052 5821) + 9.6
MAMW = 4.1296102 + 9.6
MAMW= 13.72961 or 13.7 ppg
MAASP = (MAMW Present FD) x .052 x TVD
MAASP = (13.7 10.6) x .052 x 5821
MAASP = 3.1 x .052 x 5821
MAASP = 938.3452 or 938 psi
102

Example #22
At 11,226, the well kicked. SIDPP IS 100 psi
and SICP is
350 psi. How much more pressure could the
formation take before breaking down?
MD = 11226 ft
CSG SHOE DEPTH =
5821 ft TVD
LOT PRESS. = 1250 psi
LOT FD = 9.6
MAMW = (LOTP .052 TVD) + LOT Fluid Density
ppg
MAMW = (1250 .052 5821) + 9.6
MAMW = Fluid
4.1296102
+ 9.6 = 10.6ppg
Present
Density
MAMW = 13.72961 or 13.7 ppg
MAASP = (MAMW Present FD) x .052 x TVD
MAASP = (13.7 10.6) x .052 x 5821
MAASP = 3.1 x .052 x 5821
MAASP = 938.3452 or 938 psi
Safety Margin = MAASP Applied Press (SICP).
Safety Margin = 938 350
Safety Margin = 588 psi

103

# 23. Example
Test the well to an equivalent mud weight of
11.5 ppg:
MD = 11226 ft
CSG SHOE DEPTH = 5821 ft TVD
LOT PRESSURE = 1250 PSI
Present Fluid Density = 10.6 ppg
MAASP = (EM Wt Present M Wt) X .052 X TVD
MAASP = (11.5 10.6) X .052 X 5821
MAASP = .9 X .052 X 5821
MAASP = 272.4228 psi or 272 psi

104

Example #11
What will the new pump
pressure be if:
Circulating Pressure is 1000 PSI
Present Fluid Density is 10.0 PPG
New Fluid Density is 11.0
#53
NPP = (New Mud Weight Old Mud Weight) X Present Pump
Pressure

105

NPP = (NMW OMW) X


PPP NPP = (11.0 OMW) X PPP
NPP = (11.0 10.0) X PPP
NPP = (11.0 10.0) X 1000
NPP = 1.1 X 1000
NPP = 1100 PSI
106

Example #12
What will the new
Circulating Pressure is 1000 PSI
pump
pressure
be
if:
Old Strokes Per Minute is 20
New Strokes Per Minute is 35

#52
NPP = (NSPM OSPM) X Present Pump Pressure

107

NPP = (NSPM OSPM)


X
PPP
NPP = (35 OSPM) X PPP
NPP
NPP
NPP
NPP
NPP
NPP

=
=
=
=
=
=

(35 20) X PPP


(35 20) X 1000
1.75 X 1000
1.75 X 1.75 X 1000
3.0625 X 1000
3063 PSI

If the rate is doubled, the pump pressure


increases by approximately 4 times.
108

109

SOME GAS FACTS:


Gas is a fluid
Gas compresses easily
Gas volume and density is affected by

pressure and temperature changes

1. As pressure increases, density (weight)


increases
2. As temperature increases, volume increases
as long
as pressure is held constant
3. If volume is held constant, as temperature
increases, pressure will increase.
110

Bottom-Hole Pressure

There are no pumps running and


the well is not flowing.

111

Bottom-Hole Pressure

If the pumps are


running then BHP is the
sum of AFPL and
HP in
the well.

112

Bottom-Hole Pressure

If back pressure is applied


while circulating then the BHP
will be the sum of HP + AFPL +
Back Pressure
113

Bottom-Hole Pressure

114

What happens to the MASP when your mud weight


changes?
Hydrostatic Pressure = Fluid Wt. Inc.ppg x 0.052 x Depth ft, TVD
Fluid Density ppg

9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

EST. Integrity Press. spi

1250
1241
1180
1150
1120
1090
1059
1029
999
969
938
115

Equivalent Mud Weight

From the previous discussions, it should be apparent that any applied pressure
raises the total pressure at a given point. If the applied pressure is known, then
it can be calculated to an equivalent weight.
The equivalent mud weight (EMW) is also the summation of all pressures
( hydrostatic pressure, choke or back-pressure, applied pressure, kick pressure,
circulating pressure losses, etc.) at a given depth or zone and is expressed as
a fluid density.
( Casing Pressure psi 0.052 Depth ft./ tvd. ) + Present Fluid Density ppg

EMW PPG = (375 .052 3000) + 8.8


= 2.4 + 8.8
= 11.2 PPG

To determine how much applied pressure is required to


test a pre-determined EMW at a given depth:
( EMW ppg Present Fluid Density ppg ) x 0.052 x Depth of Test ft. tvd
Test Pressure psi = (13.4 - 9.1) x 0.052 x 5,745
= 4.3 x 0.052 x 5,745
= 1285 psi
116

Pressure- Losses/Circulating
Friction is the resistance to movement. It takes force, or pressure, to overcome friction to get
anything to move.
The amount of force used to overcome friction is called frictional loss and can be measured in
many ways. Thousands of psi of pressure can be lost to the wells circulating system as fluid is
pumped through surface lines, down the string, and up the annulus.
When the well is being circulated, bottom-hole pressure is increased by the amount of friction
overcome in the annulus. When pumps are shut off, well-bore pressure is reduced because no
frictional force is being overcome.
Since friction adds pressure to the well-bore, it increased the effective weight, or the equivalent
circulating density (ECD). The total value is the equivalent of bottom-hole pressure with the
pump on.

117

Pump PSI = Surface Equip. + Drill String + Bit + AFL


AFL is the only friction pressure felt on the bottom of the well.

118

Since this friction adds pressure


to the well bore, it increases the
effective weight, or the
equivalent circulating density
(ECD). The total value is
equivalent of bottomhole
pressure with the pump on.
ECD = (AFL 0.052 TVD ft.) + PMW ppg

119

Decreasing / Increasing Bottomhole


pressure

Swabbing occurs because the fluid in the well does not drop
as fast as the string is being pulled.
Surge pressure occurs when the string is lowered to fast and
pressure is created because the fluid does not have a chance to
get out of the way.

120

The conversion factor used to convert density to pressure gradient in the English system is 0.052. The way 0.052 is
derived is by using a one foot cube, ( one foot wide by one foot long by one foot high). It takes about 7.48 gallons to fill
the cube with fluid. It the fluid weighs one pound per gallon, and you have 7.48 gallons, then the total weight of the cube
is 7.48 pounds per cubic foot. The weight of one of these square inches, one foot in height, can be found by dividing the
total weight of the cube by 144:
7.48 144 = 0.051944 psi/ft.
The conversion factor 0.052 is commonly used for oilfield calculations.

PRESSURE GRADIENT = Fluid x Conversion Factor


What is the pressure gradient of fresh water which weighs 8.33 ppg?
What is the pressure gradient of a fluid that weighs 9.5 ppg?
What is the fluid density of a pressure gradient of 0.572 psi/ft?

121

TVD vs. MD
Once we know how to find pressure exerted per foot, we can
calculate the hydrostatic pressure at a given depth. All we have
to do is multiply the pressure gradient by the number of feet to
that vertical depth. Now we have to know the distinction
between measured depth (MD) and true vertical depth (TVD).

MD=
MD Is used to calculate volume and strokes
TVD=
TVD Is used to calculate hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is the total fluid pressure created
by the weight of a column of fluid, acting on any given
point in a well. Hydro means water, or fluid, that exerts
pressure like water, and static means not moving. So
hydrostatic pressure is the pressure created by the
density (weight) and height of a stationary (not moving)
column of fluid.

Hydrostatic Pressure = Fluid Density X Conversion Factor X TV Depth


OR
Hydrostatic Pressure = Pressure Gradient X TV Depth

122

U-Tube
What is U-Tubing?
What will happen if fluid in the annulus is heavier
than the fluid in the string?

The heavier fluid in the annulus exerting more pressure


downward will flow into the string, displacing some of the
lighter fluid out of the string, causing a backflow at the
surface. When there is a difference in the hydrostatic
pressures, the fluid will try to reach a balance point.

Gain in pits ppg = (Slug Weight ppg Annulus Weight ppg ) x Volume of Slug bbls
Pipe Capacity bbls/ft Annulus Weight ppg x Pipe Capacity bbls/ft

Distance of Drop ft = Gain in Pits bbls Pipe Capacity bbls/ft


123

2 7/8

#6a. Closed End Displacement bbl/ft = OD 1029.4


124

Example #12
What is the Closed End Displacement of the pipe?
What is the total displacement if the length of the
pipe is 1000 ft.?
CED bbl/ft = OD 1029.4
= 2.875 1029.4
= (2.875 X 2.875) 1029.4
= 8.265625 1029.4
CED
= .00803 bbl/ft
Total Displacement bbls = Displacement X
Length
= .00803 X 1000
Total Displacement = 8.03 bbls or
Total Displacement = 8.0 bbls
125

What do we need to know?


126

2.151

#6 Internal Capacity bbl/ft = ID 1029.4

127

* Example #13
What is the capacity of the pipe?
What is the volume if the length of
the pipe is 1000 ft.?
Capacity

= ID 1029.4
= 2.151 1029.4
= (2.151 X 2.151) 1029.4
= 4.626801 1029.4
Capacity = .00449 bbl/ft
Volume bbls = Capacity X Length
= .00449 X 1000
Volume = 4.49 bbls or
Volume = 4.5 bbls
bbl/ft

128

Example #14
What is the displacement of this pipe?
What is the volume of 1000 ft. of
displacement?

What do we need to know?

129

2.875

2.151

#10 Displacement bbl/ft = (OD - ID) 1029.4

130

Metal Displacement bbl/ft = (OD ID) 1029.4


Metal Displacement = (2.875 - 2.151)
1029.4
= [(2.875 x 2.875) (2.151 x 2.151)]
1029.4
= [8.265625 4.626801] 1029.4
= 3.638824 1029.4
Metal Displacement = .00353 bbl/ft
Total Displ. bbls = Displacement bbl/ft X
Length ft
= .00353 X 1000
Total Displ. = 3.53 bbls or
= 3.5 bbls
131

132

Pipe
ID = 2.151
OD = 2 7/8
Hole
ID = 4 5/8
Depth = 1000 ft.

133

#7

Annular Capacity bbl/ft = (IDHOLE - ODPIPE)

1029.4

Volume
bbls = Capacity X Length
Annular Capacity bbl/ft = (4.625 - 2.875) 1029.4
= [(4.625 X 4.625) (2.875 X 2.875)]
1029.4
= [21.390625 8.265625] 1029.4
= 13.125 1029.4
Annular Capacity bbl/ft = .01275 bbl/ft
Annular Volume

bbls

= Annular Capacity X Length


= .01275 X 1000

Annular Volume

bbls

= 12.75 bbls. Or

Annular Volume

bbls

= 12.8 bbls

134

2 7/8

135

Example #9
Calculate the HP in a well when a lighter
spacer is added.

Well TVD = 10,000 Ft.


Fluid Density = 12.0 PPG
Fluid Level = 10,000 Ft. TVD
Spacer Density = 9.8 ppg
Vertical Depth of Spacer = 500 Ft

136

First, calculate the


original HP.
HP = FD X .052 X TVD
HP = 12.0 X .052 X TVD
HP = 12.0 X .052 X 10000
HP = 6240 PSI

137

Next, calculate the HP of


the spacer pumped.
HP = FD X .052 X TVD
HP = 9.8 X .052 X TVD
HP = 9.8 X .052 X 500
HP = 255 PSI

138

Next, calculate the HP of


the original fluid at the
new height.
HP = FD X .052 X TVD
HP = 12.0 X .052 X TVD
HP = 12.0 X .052 X 9500
HP = 5928 PSI

139

Add the HP at the new


height and the HP of the
spacer.
HP = HP at 9500 ft + HP of
psi

psi

psi

Spacer

HP = 5928 + HP of Spacer
psi

psi

HP = 5928 + 255
psi

HP = 6183 psi
psi

140

Example #10
If we know the depths and
densities of the fluids in
the annulus and the string,
we can calculate the
pressure differential.
STRING
Density : 10.0
PPG

ANNULUS
Density : 10.2
PPG

Depth : 10,000
Ft.

Depth : 10,000
Ft.
141

String
HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD
HP = 10 X .052 X 10000
HP = 5200 PSI

142

Annulus
HP = Fluid Density X .052 X TVD
HP = 10.2 X .052 X 10000
HP = 5304 PSI

143

So, there is 100 psi of pressure


trying to push the fluid into the
tubing. If not stopped, the fluid will
flow out of the string until the
pressures are equalized and the fluid
level in the annulus gets lower.
The annulus is not full, so the HP of
5300 PSI is lost.
144

U-Tube
What is U-Tubing?

What will happen if fluid in the annulus is heavier


than the fluid in the string?
The heavier fluid in the annulus exerting more pressure
downward will flow into the string, displacing some of
the lighter fluid out of the string, causing a flow at the
surface. When there is a difference in the hydrostatic
pressures, the fluid will try to reach a balance point.

145

146

147

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Always use True Vertical Depth (TVD)
Gravity reacts vertically

148

Fluid takes the shape of the container.

149

U - TUBING

If you put a heavier fluid in the drill pipe,


the fluid will tend to flow until the pressure
on both sides of the u-tube is the same.

150

The amount of friction that


has to be overcome in
order to keep the fluid in
motion depends on many
factors:
1. Density of the fluid
2. Type and roughness of surfaces making

contact
3. Surface area in contact
4. Direction and velocity of fluid
5. Thermal and mud properties
151

Formations vary and are


classified as:
Normal: Has pressure gradient equal

to water, .433 to .465 PSI/Ft


Abnormal: Has pressure gradient > .

465 PSI/Ft
Subnormal: Has pressure gradient < .

433 PSI/Ft
152

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:
1. As overburden increases and

fluids are trapped, pore fluid helps


support overburden. If pressure
gradient is > .465 psi/ft, then zone is
classified as abnormal.

153

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:

154

Abnormal pressure can


occur in several ways:

3. When high pressure fluids from deeper

zones migrate into shallower zones,


shallower zones can become abnormally
pressured
A. Casing failure in older wells
B. Improper plug and abandonment

operations
C. Poorly implemented cement programs

155

It is more likely that you will drill into a sub normally pressured
zone at shallow depths than at deep depths.

156

157

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
Well control is about controlling formation
pressures.
We primarily do this with liquids in the well.
Sometimes there is a difference between
formation pressure (FP) and hydrostatic
pressure (HP) and this is called differential
pressure.
In some cases, a combination of HP and
back pressure is used to control FP.

158

Differential Pressure
Overbalanced- When you have more
hydrostatic pressure than formation pressure.

BHP > FP

Underbalanced - When you have more


formation pressure than hydrostatic pressure.

BHP < FP
Balanced - When your hydrostatic
pressure and formation pressures are the same.

BHP = FP

Could cause swabbing

159

BUOYANCY
When an object is placed in a fluid, the

fluid pushes upward on the object with a


net force equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced.
The upward force is called BUOYANCY

160

BUOYANCY
One cubic foot of wood weighs about

31#. When it is placed in water, it will


sink until it displaced about 31# of water.

Since a cubic foot of water weighs more than a cubic


foot of wood, the wood floats.

161

BUOYANCY

A one foot iron cube weighs 490 pounds. When placed

in water, it will displace one cubic foot of water.

One cubic foot of water weighs 62.3 pounds


The net buoyancy pushing up on the iron cube is
62.3 pounds
The iron cube doesnt float and will appear to weigh
approximately 62 pounds less or about 428 pounds.

162

BUOYANCY FORMULA
#56
B = [(65.4 FD ) 65.4] X PW
PPG

PPF

EXAMPLE: #9
What is the buoyed weight of 93 ft. of 2 3/8 tubing (4.7
PPF) stripped dry into a well that has 12.2 ppg brine in
the casing?
BWt = [(65.4 12.2) 65.4] X 4.7
= [53.2 65.4] X 4.7
= .8134556 X 4.7
BWt = 3.8 PPF
B = 353 lbs.
163

WHEN PIPE IS LOWERED INTO A


WELL IT WILL APPEAR TO WEIGH LESS.

164

Example #17
#38
Max. Length =[ (Press. Drop .052 FD) X (Ann. Capacity)] (Pipe Displ.+ Pipe
Max. Length = [(75 .052 12.5) X (.07583-.00597-.01422)]
Cap.)

(.00597 + .01422)

= [115.4 X .05564] .02019


= 6.420856 .02019
Max. Length = 318.02 ft. or
Max. Length = 318 ft.

At 93 ft. per stand, how many stands can be


pulled?
No. of Stands = Max. Length Length per stand
= 318 93
No. of Stands = 3.41 stands or
165
No. of Stands = 3

*Example #18.
What is the difference in hydrostatic
pressure per 1000 ft. of pipe between
making a wet trip and a dry trip out
the well described below?
Mud weight: 13.4 PPG
Casing: 9 5/8, 8.835 ID, .07583 bbl/ft
capacity
Drillpipe: 4 , 3.826 ID, .01421 bbl/ft
capacity
.00663 bbl/ft displacement
This information is good for both example #18
and #19.
166