You are on page 1of 17

Diverters, Shallow Gas,

and Dynamic Kills


Well Control School Oman

1-diverter

Objectives
Discuss the cause of a shallow gas flow
Describe the operation of a diverter
Purpose
Procedure
Schematic
Describe a dynamic kill
General description
WCSim simulation results
2-diverter

Shallow Gas

Considerations:
Drill small pilot hole
Heavy mud ready in pits

3-diverter

Diverter - Purpose
Provides a safe flow path away from the rig for
formation fluid in the event of a kick
Diverter equipment is typically used while drilling
conductor or surface hole
Diverter is used because formation does not have
sufficient formation integrity to allow the well to be
shut in with BOP
Formation fluids (gas) directed downwind of the rig sometimes to a flare. Directing the flow away from the
rig provides protection for the drilling crew and rig
equipment.
4-diverter

Diverter - Procedure
If any of the following occur:
Hole not taking correct mud
Gain or loss in pit volume
Increased flow
Drilling break
Change in pump pressure
Gas cut mud or chloride decrease

Yes
Pick up kelly until tool joint
clears rotary table

Is Well Flowing?

No
1. Pick up kelly until tool
joint clears rotary table
2. Shut down Pumps
3. Check for Flow

No
Flow

Flowing
1. Open Diverter line valve; Close Diverter
Notify
Superintendent
and Tool Pusher

2. Select direction of flow and close upstream valve

Continue as
directed

3. Pump at maximum rate and circulate down drill pipe


4. Control well according to plan - observe for signs of
broaching and prepare to evacuate if necessary.
5-diverter

Diverter System Schematic


Pump - Fill Trip Tank
Valve
This line is NOT used
during diverting
operations.

Bell Nipple

Flow Line

From Trip
Tank
Diverter
To Trip
Tank

To
Reserve Pit

Diverter Line

Kill
Line

(Oriented with prevailing wind)

Conductor Pipe
6-diverter

Hydril Diverter

7-diverter

Diverter Lines
Large internal-diameter diveter lines should be used to
minimize back pressure on formation.
Land Rigs: 6-in ID minimum
Offshore Rigs: 10-in ID minimum
Diverter lines shall be securely anchored and tergeted.
Sleeve-type couplings must not be used for pipe joint
connections.
45 and 90 ells must not be installed on the end of diverter
lines to direct flow downward. These could cause the line
to Kick up and possibly break off when large flow
volumes are diverted.
8-diverter

Unacceptable Diverter Line

9-diverter

Diverter Valves
All diverter lines valves must be designed to maintain full open
or closed position
The hydraulic control system must be sequenced so that the
diverter line will always be fully open before the diverter
annular preventer is closed.
This prevents applying excess pressure on the formations that
may be too weak to withstand the pressure. Failure to open
the valves first could lead to broaching.
In areas where plugging is anticipated by gumbo, full opening
valves are recommended in lieu of butterfly valves.
10-diverter

Unacceptable Diverter Valve

11-diverter

Objectives
Discuss the cause of a shallow gas flow
Describe the operation of a diverter
Purpose
Schematic
Describe a dynamic kill
General description
WCSim simulation results
12-diverter

Dynamic Kill
When gas flow enters the wellbore and diverter is
closed, a dynamic kill should be attempted.
In a dynamic kill, drilling fluid is pumped at a high flow
rate into the wellbore. Because of the frictional
pressure drop in the annulus, the bottomhole pressure
is increased.
When the back pressure from the pumping is larger
than the influx pressure, the gas flow is stopped.
Pits with heavy mud should be prepared in advance to
help the kill. The system should be able to switch over
to pumping water after the mud
13-diverter

Dynamic Kill
Fluid in
High Rate

Fluid in

Open

Diverter

Closed

Fluid/gas out
diverter line

Gas kick is taken

Fluid/gas out
diverter line

Annular P up

Pilot
Hole

Closed

Diverter closed; Drilling fluid


pumped at high rate

Annular P up

Fluid out
flow line

Fluid in
High Rate

BHP pressure up;


well killed 14-diverter

Dynamic Kill - Simulations


Typical Dynamic Kill
Requirements

Volume to Stop Reservoir Flow (bbl)

1000
900

WCSim is an unsteady,
two-phase flow model that
can simulate shallow gas
flows.

Kill
Region

800
700

14.5 ppg

600

12.5 ppg

Given inputs (reservoir


props, wellbore geometry,
mud props..) flow rate/kill
weight mud
recommendations can be
made.

11.5 ppg

500

9.5 ppg

400

8.66 ppg

300
200

No Kill
Region

100

Typical result shown on left.

0
10

20

30

40
50
60
70
Pump Rate (bbl/min)

80

90

100
15-diverter

Dynamic Kill - Case Study


14-in casing
at 60-ft

Pumped 5 bbls fresh


water at 3 BPM.
Pumped 12.5 ppg mud
at 3 BPM to 6.1 BPM

8 5/8-in casing
at 1648-ft
7 7/8in hole
TD = 2133-ft

Sand at 2110- ft
BHP approximately 9.2 ppg
EMW
Perm=14 mD
Porosity = 30%

After well was dead,


pumped 11.5 ppg mud
at 4 bpm to circulate the
well.
16-diverter

Summary
When shallow gas is suspected, a pilot hole should be drilled and a
diverter should be used. Heavy mud should be prepared in advance
and be available on the rig.
When a shallow flow is detected, the diverter line valve should be
opened and the diverter should be closed. System design should
prohibit closing a diverter before opening the diverter line valve.
A dynamic kill should be attempted by pumping drilling fluid at high
rates into the well - increased annular friction can kill well. Water
should be pumped after the heavy mud .
Drills should be held to ensure that the crew is trained in diverter
operation
Dynamic kill simulations can be performed by EPR as part of well
planning.
17-diverter