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Saad Asif

12-ce103

COMBUSTION OF COAL

IMPORTANCE OF COAL COMBUSTION


Coal is an important energy source for mankind.
Nowadays, direct coal combustion is extensively utilized for industrial and
domestic purposes because of the large-scale reserves and low cost of
coal.
It is used to produce electricity.
About 41.5 % of the worlds electricity is produce by the coal.
Most of the worlds coal is burned in boilers of power plants, industrial
boilers, and heat kilns (to produce cement, bricks, etc.).
Space heating and domestic consumption also consume a large amount
of coal every year.

BASIC PROCESSES OF COAL


COMBUSTION
The combustion of coal is primarily the combustion of carbon as well as
the volatile matter.
Principal combustion process of coal involves three basic stages:
1.

The release of the volatile matter resulting from the heating of coal.

2. The burning of the released volatile matter.


3. The burning of the remaining char.

MAIN PROCESSES IN COAL


COMBUSTION
homogeneous
combustion

volatiles

CO2, H2O,

coal particle
p-coal, d=30-70m

char

heterogeneous
combustion

CO2, H2O,

devolatilization

tdevolatile=1-5ms

tvolatiles=50-100ms

tchar=1-2sec

COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR SOLID FUELS


For complete combustion coal is burned with excess air.
The excess air required for coal combustion depends on the type of coal
firing equipment.
I.

Fixed-bed combustion

II. Suspension Firing/Pulverized Coal combustion


III. Fluidized-bed combustion

FIXED-BED COMBUSTION
Init lumps of coal is supported onto a grate, and preheated
primary air (called underfire air) is blown from under the bed to
burn the fixed carbon.
Some secondary air (overfire air) is introduced over the coal bed to
burn the volatiles released from the bed.
Based on the method of feeding the coal, these systems can be
further classified as :
I.

Overfeed stokers

II. Underfeed Stokers


III. Cross feed stokers
. Stoker fired boilers use sized coal and hence require less excess air

Stoker fired boilers

PULVERISED COAL
COMBUSTION
Pulverised system is generally used now a days for
big power plant whose capacity exceeds 100 MW.
In it coal size reduced to fine powder so that to

behave like a liquid if air is blown upwards


through the powder
These powder is than projected into the combustion
chamber with the help of hot air current.
Air required (i.e. secondary air) for the combustion
is supplied separately.
They require minimum excess air due to high
surface area of coal ensuring complete combustion.

FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION
The basic principle of operation is that the coal is mixed with an inert
material (e.g. sand) and the bed is fluidized by an upwards flow of air.
The bed materialusually a mixture of coal,sand, and limestone
sand particles is used as heating medium and heated to the ignition
temperature of coal.
In fluidized bed combustion the bed temperature is maintained well below
the melting point of the ash .
Temperature below ash m.p so tendency of slagging and fouling are
reduce

TYPES OF FLUIDIZED BED


BOILERS
Concerning the structure of fluidized bed:
I.

boilers with bubbling fluidized bed (BFB)

II. boilers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB)