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Abstraction of

and azurite).


leaching of oxide copper ore

containing malachite and azurite,
which is the unique copper
minerals in the ore, by aqueous
ammonia solution has been
e blue.

de carbonato
de cobre (II))


main important parameters in ammonia

leaching of malachite ore are determined as
leaching time, ammonia/ammonium
concentration ratio, pH, solid/liquid ratio, leaching
temperature, and particle size. Optimum leaching
conditions from malachite or azurite ore by
ammonia/ammonium carbonate solution are
found as ammonia/ammonium carbonate

5 M NH4OH+0.3 M (NH4)2CO3; solid/liquid ratio: 1:10 g/mL;

leaching times: 120 min; stirring speed: 300 rpm; leaching
temperature: 25 C; particle size finer than 450 m. More than
98% of copper was effectively recovered.


the leaching, copper dissolves as

in the form of Cu(NH3)4+2 complex ion,
whereas gangue minerals do not react
with ammonia.

Leaching of machite and azurite

whith acid sulfuric.

The effects of leaching time, stirring speed, acid concentration, solid to liquid
ratio, reaction temperature, and particle size of the ore were investigated.

Using the best conditions, the copper recovery

was nearly 94% at 25 C and 99% at 80 C after
180 min leaching. Dissolution of malachite
during the leaching was described by a
logarithmic function, y=a ln(x)+b.

Extraction de silver, zinc, and


A process for non-ferrous metals production from complex sulphide ores

containing copper, lead, of zinc, silver and/or gold which comprises: grinding
said ore and subjecting it to a flotation operation for obtaining a bulk
concentrate of the non-ferrous metals minerals and for separating most of
the pyrite as a flotation tail, slurrying said concentrate in water in such a way
as to obtain a predetermined solid-liquid ratio and subjecting said slurry to an
oxidation leach in a stirred pressure reactor, at an oxygen partial pressure in
the range of from about 5 to 15 Kg/cm2 g and a temperature in the range of
from about 150 to 250 C.

for complete oxidation of metal sulphides to sulphates, separating the

reaction mixture into a solid residue containing ferric oxide, lead sulphate and
precious metals, and a leaching liquor containing sulphuric acid, copper
sulphate and zinc sulphate, neutralizing the free sulphuric acid contained in
said leaching liquor with grounded limestone to a final pH in the range of
from about 1.5 to 2.5.

removing precipitated gypsum from solution, recovering copper

by cementation or solvent extraction and electrowinning,
leaching lead, silver and gold from the said solid residue by a
strong chloride solution containing calcium chloride at a
temperature in the range of about 60 to 90 C. at a pH in the
range of from about 7.0 to 1.0 and in the presence of about 1
gram per liter of ferric chloride, recovering lead, silver and gold
from the brine solution after solid removal by cementation with
scrap zinc, mixing the lead free brine solution containing the zinc
used in lead cementation with the zinc bearing solution from the
copper recovery operation, and recovery zinc from the resulting
solution by solvent extraction and electrowinning.

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