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Prof G R C Nair

Objectives

Learn the importance and applications of Q.T Learn various scales of Measurement Define Central Tendency Learn various Measures of Central Tendency Learn how to calculate these values

**Why Quantitative Techniques ?
**

Statistical techniques, which techniques, involves collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting numerical data, can assist in making more effective decisions.

Applications

Statistical techniques are used extensively by marketing, accounting, quality control, consumers, professional sports people, hospital administrators, educators, politicians, physicians, etc.

**Population and Sample
**

A population is a collection of all possible individuals, objects, or measurements of interest.

A sample is a portion, or part, portion, of the population of interest

Scales of Measurement

Measuring non tangibles is difficult 4 different scales in increasing order of precision, and power.

**Scales in the increasing order of precision are,
**

1. Nominal Scale: Data that is classified into categories. Number does not signify its mathematical characteristics Eg: gender, Blood group

2. Ordinal Scale:

Involves data arranged in some order, but the differences between data values vary. eg: Rank of students (1>2>3) Moh·s Hardness scale ( 2 > 1) But 2-1 is not equal to 5 - 4 2-

3. Interval Scale: Similar to the ordinal level, with the additional property that meaningful amounts of differences between data values can be determined. eg: Temperature ( 400 C-300 C = 200 C - 100 C) But there is no natural zero point. 400C is not twice as hot as 200C

4. Ratio Scale: Constant interval with an inherent zero starting point. Differences and ratios are meaningful for this level of measurement. eg: Distance ( 10km is double 5km, 20 kg weighs double of 10 kg) Use the most precise scale possible.

Central Tendency

All natural tabulated data have a tendency to cluster around some central value. There will be low frequency at the two extremes. This is known as Central Tendency.

**Measures of Central Values
**

The central Value has to be measured for various uses. Representative Value for whole data For Comparison To establish relationships To derive inferences To aid decision making

Mean

The Arithmetic mean (mean-M) is the most (meancommonly used measure It is the sum of all the values divided by the total number of values:

Q !

§

X

N

where µ is the mean. ² N is the total number of observations. ² X is a particular value. ² 7 indicates the operation of adding

** The weighted mean of a set of
**

numbers X1, X2, ..., Xn, with corresponding weights w1, w2, ...,wn, is computed from the following formula: The weighted mean of a set of numbers X1, X2, ..., Xn, with corresponding weights w1, w2, ...,wn, is computed from the following formula:

Xw

( w 1 X 1 w 2 X 2 ... w n X ! ( w 1 w 2 ... w n )

n)

Geometric Mean = nth root of (x1* x2*«.xn) Harmonic Mean = n / (1/x1+1/x2+1/x3«1/xn)

Median

The Median (Me) is the midpoint of the values after they have been arranged from the smallest to the largest.

There are as many values above the median as below it in the data array. It is the (n+1)/2 th term For an even set of values, the median will be the arithmetic average of the two middle numbers.

The ages for a sample of five college students are: 21, 25, 19, 20, 22 Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 19, 20, 21, 22, 25. Thus the median is 21.

The heights of four basketball players, in inches, are: 76, 73, 80, 75 Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 73, 75, 76, 80. Thus the median is 75.5

Mode

The mode (Mo) is the value of the observation that appears most frequently. The exam scores for ten students are: 81, 93, 84, 75, 68, 87, 81, 75, 81, 87. Because the score of 81 occurs the most often, it is the mode.

**Mean of Grouped Data
**

Grouping of data , Frequency Inclusive ² Exclusive method Class limit, width, mid point Class boundary, interval.

The mean of a sample of data organized in a frequency distribution is computed by the following formula: n=7f

7 f ! n

Sample of ten movie theaters in a city were tabulated for the total number of movies shown during a month. Compute the mean number of movies shown.

Movies showing 1 up to 3 3 up to 5 5 up to 7 7 up to 9 9 up to 11 Total frequency f 1 2 3 1 3 10

Movies showing 1 up to 3 3 up to 5 up to 7 7 up to 9 9 up to 11 Total 5

frequency f 1 2 3 1 3 10

class midpoint X 2 4 6 8 10

(f)( X ) 2 8 18 8 30 66

66 ! 6. 6 X ! Xf ! n 10

7 Xf

**Short Cut Method
**

X = X0 + 7(d x f ) / n 7(d

** X0 = assumed mean d = deviation of x from mean n = total number (ie 7 f) Further, if u = d/w,
**

X = X0 + w 7(u x f ) / n 7(u

**Short cut Method
**

Ans: 28.731

Class 0-10 1010-20 2020-30 3030-40 4040-50 5050-60

f d 4 -20 16 -10 15 0 20 10 7 20 5 30 67 Ans 25+(25/67)x10

¶x· 5 15 25 35 45 55

fu -8 -16 0 20 14 15 25 = 28.731

u -2 -1 0 1 2 3

**Median of Grouped Data
**

The median of a sample of data organized in a frequency distribution is computed by

Median

! Lm + [(N+1)/2 - (F+1)] W fm

where Lm is the lower boundary of the median class, F is the cumulative frequency preceding the median class fm is the frequency of the median class, w is the median class interval. N is the total frequency

**Finding the Median Class
**

To determine the median class Construct a cumulative frequency distribution. If the total number of data is N, find (N+1)/2. Determine which class will contain this value. For example, if N =49, 50/2 = 25, then determine which class will contain the 25th value. If N is even, take the average of the 2 middle values

**Mode of Grouped Data
**

The mode for grouped data is approximated by the midpoint of the class with the largest class frequency. frequency. When two values occur a large number of times, the distribution is called bimodal.

**Mode of a grouped data
**

MODE = Lm + { ( d1 ) /(d1+d2) }x w Lm= lower boundary of modal class fm = frequency of modal class f1= frequency of class just preceding modal class f2= frequency of class just succeeding modal class w = common width of class d1 = fm-f1 fmd2 = fm-f2 fm-

Find Median and Mode from the following frequency distribution ² hint hidden Output 300 TO 309 310 TO 319 320 TO 329 330 TO 339 340 TO 349 350 TO 359 360 TO 369 370 TO 379 No. Of Workers 9 20 24 38 48 - Modal class 27 17 6

Since the distribution is excusive type, first convert it to inclusive type and then proceed.

Median

! Lm [(N+1) (F+1)] W fm

=339.5+{ (189+1)/2 ²(91+1) } 10/48 =340.12 MODE = Lm+ { ( d1 ) /(d1+d2) }x w = 339.5 + { (10) /(10+21)}x 10 = 342.7

Assignment

Page 64. Levin Page 82- SC 3.1,Page 98 SC3.8 82-

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