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Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Methods of
Research and
Procedures

■ Method of Research Used ■ Method of Collecting Data and Development of the Research Instrument ■ Sampling Design ■ Statistical Treatment .

■ The procedural part of the method. .Method of Research Used ■ The method of research used should be explained briefly. its appropriateness to the study and some of its advantages should be given attention and should be well discussed.

.Method of Collecting Data and Development of the Research Instrument ■ Method of collecting data and the development of the instrument for gathering data must also be explained.

The Sampling Design Before the collection of data starts in any research project. a.The proportion of the population to be used must have been determined already b.The computation of the sample must have been finished. .

The sample .The size of the population. systematic random sampling.The type or technique of sampling used whether pure random sampling. e.The study population c. cluster sampling or a combination of two or more techniques.Things that should explain are: a. d.The actual computation of the sample f. The margin of error and the proportion of the study population used. stratified random sampling. b.

especially the specific problems. . and the nature of the data gathered. ■ The kind of statistical treatment depends upon the nature of the problem.Statistical Treatment of Data ■ The last part of this chapter usually describes the statistical treatment of data.

The Role of Statistics in Research .

particularly in experimental research. ■ 2. Statistical techniques help the researcher in determining the validity and reliability of his research instruments. .What functions do statistics perform in research? ■ 1. Statistical methods help the researcher in making his research design.

What functions do statistics perform in research? ■ 3. Statistical procedures meaning and interpretation to data. Statistical manipulations organize raw data systematically to make the latter ■ 4. Statistical treatments give ■ 6. Statistics are used appropriate for study. to test the hypotheses. . are indispensable in determining the level of significance of vital statistical measure. ■ 5.

Some Guidelines in the selection and application of statistical procedures .

■ 2. the measures of central tendency may be computed and used. ■ 3. normal. When certain proportions of the population based on certain variables are desired to be known. or average is desired to be known. .Some suggestions for the selection and application of statistical techniques: ■ 1. When the typical. The data should be organized using any or all of the following depending upon what is desired to be known or what is to be computed. frequency counts with their frequency percents may be used.

Some suggestions for the selection and application of statistical techniques: ■ 4. the measures of variability may be computed and used. the weighted mean may be computed and used if the average is desired to be known. quartile/percentile rank may be computed and used. and the like. ■ 6. When the variability of the population is desired to be known. ■ 5. ranking. . The relative placements are desired to be known. When the variables being studied are abstract or continuous such that they cannot be counted individually.

When the significance of the trend of reaction or opinion of persons as a group toward a certain issue. the chi-square of equal probability. When the significance of the difference between the reactions. ■ 8. is computed and used . the chi-square of equal probability. value or thing is desired to be known but in which there is a neutral position.Some suggestions for the selection and application of statistical techniques: ■ 7. two group. situation. is computed and interpreted. or opinions of two distinct groups in which there is a neutral position is desired to be known. single group.

the computation of the difference between means is to be made. the coefficient of correlation is computed. .Some suggestions for the selection and application of statistical techniques: ■ 9. ■ 10. If the significance of the difference between the perceptions of two groups about a certain situation is to be studied. To determine how one variable varies with another.

■ 12. partial and multiple correlations are suggested to be used. To determine the effects of some variables upon a single variable to which they are related.Some suggestions for the selection and application of statistical techniques: ■ 11. analysis of variance is appropriate to use. . To determine the relative effectiveness of the different ways of doing things to which different randomized groups are respectively exposed to and only a post test is given to the different groups.

Thank You ! .