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1.

Juli Novianto Sunarno (AS 187818)
• +628578638820
• juli.novianto@yahoo.com
2. Yohanes Andika
(AS 187955)
• +6285642133606
• yohanes_andika@yahoo.com
SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY – SOLO INDONESIA
Powerpoint title :

Benefits and Challenges - Natural Gas
for Transportation

com .novianto@yahoo.Chemical Engineering Sebelas Maret university Benefits and Challenges Natural Gas for Transportation Name : Juli Novianto Sunarno IC : AS 187818 Email : juli.com Name : Yohanes Andika IC : AS 187955 2 Email : yohanes_andika@yahoo.

Table Of Content Global Warming 3 Human Activities to Global Warming World’s Energy Demand Forecast Availability of Natural Gas 8 Environmentally Friendly of Natural Gas Economic Benefit 11 Challenge Implementation 13 Conclusion 15 Reference 17 .

J.Mimura.nasa.gov 4 .J.T. Source: climate. Nicholls and N.. 34 Source: Klein. 19 million. be 19 million . the annual number of people flooded is estimated to R.Sea Level Change (mm) Around 450. R.000 km3 ice in greenland melted (19762002) Sea Level Rise SOCIAL PROBLE By the 2080s.

gov/keyIndicators/ 5 .gov/keyIndicators/ Carbon dioxide emissions ( x1000 Ton CO2) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Year http://climate.nasa.nasa.http://climate.

HOW HUMAN ACTIVITIES MAKE IT WORSE 25% Energy 64% Transportation 9% Industry 2% Other Sector INDONESIA 6 .

Energy Information Administration (EIA) Projection 300 250 200 QudrillionOil BTU 150 100 Coal 50 Natural gas Renewable Nuclear 0 1980 1990 2010 2020 2030 7 .

Environment Avalability Of Natural Gas Economic Benefit 8 .

Source = 594 TSCF (174 3. CBM = 453 TSCF (133 4.2010 production in billion cubic feet Natural Gas Production 426 3000 1281 290 2170 SEA total 7500 BCF 103 417 2800 2000 Billion cubic feet 1000 Indonesia Malaysia 0 1980 year Fact lists : 1. Shale gas = 574 TSCF (168 Source of Natural Gas 9 (46 year years) years) years) . Proven reserve = 157 TSCF 2.

0226 0.0293 0.0172 2 For Gasoline 25% CO2 Reduction For diesel 0.kg CO2/km-passanger 24% CO Reduction0.0098 0.0130 0.0383 0.0065 58 million Vehicles in Source : Indonesia Statistic Indonesia 10 .0087 0.

5 kg Refinary Distribution CO2/GJ diesel 7.1 kg CO2/GJ 57% CO2 Reduction 11 .Crude Oli to Gasoline and Diese gasoline Transportatio n 9.2 kg Exploration CO2/GJ Extracton and Processing Natural Gas Distribution 4.

Pounds per Billion Btu of Energy Input Pollutant Natural Oil Coal Gas Carbon 40 33 208 Monoxide Nitrogen 92 448 457 Oxides Sulfur 1 1.01 6 Source: EIA .74 s 4 Mercury 0.122 2.000 0.007 0.Natural Gas Issues .59 Dioxide 1 Particulate 7 84 2.safe for the atmosphere and human l Fossil Fuel Emission Levels .

034 0.58 0.031 0.032 0.38 0.90 13 .040 1.075 0.05 0.Demand in Southeast Asia 1980 – 2010 (Billion cub 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Indonesi a Malaysia Thailand Others Fuel USD/MJ USD/liter bioethanol CNG pertamax (high octane gasoline) Gasoline biodiesel Diesel 0.10 1 1.025 1.

(esdm.id) the economical price of petroleum is around USD 1 /liter fuel. the country had lost 45 percent of foreign exchange. (esdm. USD 193 billion annually.id) 14 . In 2012. while in Indonesia the price of 1 liter of fuel is USD 0.go.47/liter.53 for each liter. Thus to buy a liter of petroleum. the government spent USD 3.7 billion on subsidies.Crude Oil Consumption vs Production Consumptio n 1600 Production 1500 1400 1300 1200 Thousand Barrels/day 1100 1000 900 800 Average Consumption 20 million liter/day Average Productio 16 million liter/day 4 million liter/day Year price of natural gas is 55 percent of the price of a liter of petroleum.go. The government subsidizes USD 0.

.Natural gas vehicles cost more because of onboard fuel storage and engine modifications.

.Need additional device at gas station.

Reduce government burden for subsidy and import 17 . Carbon 400 Emission Reduction • 24% CO2 for gasoline • • 25% CO2 for diesel • 57% for a liter • Natural gas produced conclusion conclusion Cheap compare to othe alternatife energy.Human activities CO2 A big Source We have a large number of Natural gas reserve and can meet local demand up to years later.

hink for young generation 18 .

climate. Klein. accessed on Oct 30th 10. R. PA Mayewski.nasa.wikipedia.J.00 pm depth-age scale: Methods and accessed results.gov.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg2/index.eia. Mimura.Reference James Kanter (9 November 2007). DA. GA Zielinski.ipcc.org/wiki/Greenland_ice_sheet. International Herald Tribune. KC Taylor. R.ucsusa..php . on Oct 30of 8.T. 4(3–4). accessed on Nov 2nd 5. Oct 28th 8. 51– 64.html . RB Alley. Oceans. www.423. on102(C12):26. accessed on Nov 15th 10.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/CO2-and-glo bal-warming-faq.00 pm www.00 pm www.411-26.html .00 pm Research. JF Bolzan (1997) The Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 th www. PM Grootes.en. "European politicians wrestle with high gasoline prices" . AJ Gow.gov/keyIndicators/. Meese. accessed C. Nicholls and N. Journal Geophysical www.00 pm 19 .J. 1999: Coastal adaptation to climate change: can the IPCC Technical Guidelines be applied? Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. M Ram.