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orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

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FDM

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**Frequency Division Multiplexing
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Frequency guard bands

frequency

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OFDM

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Orthogonal FDM

Overlapping, but orthogonal bands

(e.g. sinc functions)

Sample at appropriate points

Much denser than FDM

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frequency

but only the first N samples are sent over the channel (these samples contain exactly the same information as the frequency points) This windowing to N samples results in a convolution with a sinc function in the frequency domain (which has the orthogonality property) 2 frequency IFFT time .Digital Modulation/Multiplexing • • • • Only values at sample points are important and contain data IFFT generates the time samples corresponding to these frequency points IFFT generates an infinite periodic time sequence.

Data Transmission Sequence 1 NT time • i=1 • frequency Data is grouped into blocks and each block is treated sequentially Each block i consists of N symbols which are transformed into N time samples using the IFFT i=2 IFFT T frequency i=3 time NT i=1 frequency 1 T 3 i=2 i=3 .

F.Upconverting and Multiplexing N 1 s ( t ) xk ( t ) e j2 f k F t fk k 0 e j2 F t N 1 xk ( t ) e k 0 e j2 F t xk (t ) e k 0 j2 k t NT e j2 k t NT x0 ck ej.t xk e j2 F t p* (t ) xN-1 4 j2 f k t c0 … N 1 k NT ck e j2 f k t p* … * cN-1 s* .2.

Fast Fourier Transform N 1 p * ( t ) xk ( t ) e j2 c0 k t NT x0 … k 0 ck xk xk ( t ) e … xN-1 x0 k 0 N IFFT xk xk xN-1 5 … N 1 k n j2 N cN-1 N-IFFT p* (0) p* ( nT ) … k 0 p* … p* ( nT ) xk (t ) e k j2 nT NT … N 1 p* (( N 1)T ) .

Single Carrier versus Multicarrier • Single carrier and multicarrier both • • send N symbols in NT. or 1/T symbols/second have a total single sided bandwidth of about 1/T T Single carrier time 1 T frequency NT Multicarrier frequency N time k 1 6 1 T .

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) • Single carrier system • Channel response Multipath components cause interference between the desired symbol and previous ones time • Multicarrier system • • • A cyclic prefix is added.T > Behaves as a cyclic convolution with the channel response cyclic prefix NT 7 . which consists of C duplicate symbols The length of the cyclic prefix is chosen such that C.

Frequency Response • • Cyclic convolution results in multiplication of frequency data points with the FFT of the channel response (= channel frequency response) Each data point is thus multiplied by a single factor FFT time frequency * FFT time 8 frequency .

Overall System View • Typically QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is used to modulate the bits onto symbols. but any modulation is possible 16-QAM 4-QAM Rb bits/s b = 6 bits/symbol b = 4 bits/symbol b = 2 bits/symbol Rb/K blocks/s Rb/b symbols/s Rb/b symbols/s Concentrator Modulator K bits/block b bits/symbol freq N-IFFT 9 RS symbols/s time Cyclic prefix insertion N symbols/block RS K N b 64-QAM Radio front-end (N+C) symbols/block Rb N C K .

channels with small k may be treated as erasures at the receiver Adaptive loading takes channel info into account at the sender With adaptive loading 1 N bav bk N k 1 bk = f(k) freq freq k k 10 .k • 1 ˆk n yk xk xˆk To demodulator From modulator Equalizing Equalizer at receiver is 1-tap for each k Channel Without adaptive loading bk = bav • 1-tap equalizer.

• • • Assign bi and Pi such that Ptot is minimized Send more information when channel is good Channel needs to be estimated (as for equalization) BER Unloa ded ad Lo Normalized channel response (dB) Adaptive Loading • • SNR (dB) 11 N = 256 bav = 4 Subcarrier ed GN AW N = 256 (uncorrelated) bav = 4 bi bits/symbol Loading information needs to be fed back to the transmitter The channel must remain quasistationary between estimation updates (low Doppler rate) .

Things to Consider About OFDM • • • Dynamic range at output of IFFT is much larger than at input (or single carrier systems): large peak-to-average ratio (PAR) Very good frequency synchronization is crucial to maintain orthogonality (otherwise ISI) Example: use OFMA as multiple access technique ISI OFDMA uplink OFDMA downlink Sync problem !!! ISI 12 .

aimed at 3G systems Market trail in one big city this year. up to 44 Mbps Flash-OFDM (Flarion): http:www. DMT baseband OFDM passband / DMT loaded OFDM unloaded ?? Different Variations of OFDM (none of them use adaptive loading) • W-OFDM or Wideband OFDM (WiLAN): http://www.com Fast frequency hopping on OFDM (‘flash’) Data rate 384 kbps – 3 Mbps at highway speeds. non-line-of-sight 2-fold receive antenna diversity (‘vector’).Different Flavors of Multicarrier Systems Discrete Multi Tone (DMT) • • Terminology used in xDSL systems In what is it different from OFDM? Nobody knows.com • V-OFDM or Vector OFDM (CISCO): http://www.11a and new 802.flarion.16 Data rate up to 30 Mbps at 70 mph Reed-Solomon coding with erasures large carrier spacing (‘wideband’) to simplify frequency synchronization MMDS microwave band.cisco. commercial availability in 2002 13 .wilan.com • Basis for 802.

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