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# FDM versus OFDM

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing
Frequency guard bands
frequency

OFDM

Orthogonal FDM
Overlapping, but orthogonal bands
(e.g. sinc functions)
Sample at appropriate points
Much denser than FDM

1

frequency

but only the first N samples are sent over the channel (these samples contain exactly the same information as the frequency points) This windowing to N samples results in a convolution with a sinc function in the frequency domain (which has the orthogonality property) 2 frequency IFFT time .Digital Modulation/Multiplexing • • • • Only values at sample points are important and contain data IFFT generates the time samples corresponding to these frequency points IFFT generates an infinite periodic time sequence.

Data Transmission Sequence 1 NT time • i=1 • frequency Data is grouped into blocks and each block is treated sequentially Each block i consists of N symbols which are transformed into N time samples using the IFFT i=2 IFFT T frequency i=3 time NT i=1 frequency 1 T 3 i=2 i=3 .

F.Upconverting and Multiplexing N 1 s ( t )   xk ( t )  e j2  f k  F  t fk  k 0 e j2 F t N 1   xk ( t )  e k 0  e j2 F t   xk (t )  e k 0 j2  k t NT e j2  k t NT x0 ck ej.t xk  e j2 F t  p* (t ) xN-1 4 j2  f k t c0 … N 1 k NT ck  e j2  f k t p* … * cN-1 s* .2.

Fast Fourier Transform N 1 p * ( t )   xk ( t )  e j2  c0 k t NT x0 … k 0 ck xk   xk ( t )  e … xN-1 x0 k 0  N  IFFT  xk  xk xN-1 5 … N 1 k n j2  N cN-1 N-IFFT p* (0) p* ( nT ) … k 0 p* … p* ( nT )   xk (t )  e k j2  nT NT … N 1 p* (( N  1)T ) .

Single Carrier versus Multicarrier • Single carrier and multicarrier both • • send N symbols in NT. or 1/T symbols/second have a total single sided bandwidth of about 1/T T Single carrier time 1 T frequency NT Multicarrier frequency N  time k 1 6 1 T .

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) • Single carrier system • Channel response Multipath components cause interference between the desired symbol and previous ones time  • Multicarrier system • • • A cyclic prefix is added.T >  Behaves as a cyclic convolution with the channel response cyclic prefix NT 7 . which consists of C duplicate symbols The length of the cyclic prefix is chosen such that C.

Frequency Response • • Cyclic convolution results in multiplication of frequency data points with the FFT of the channel response (= channel frequency response) Each data point is thus multiplied by a single factor FFT time frequency * FFT time 8 frequency .

Overall System View • Typically QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is used to modulate the bits onto symbols. but any modulation is possible 16-QAM 4-QAM Rb bits/s b = 6 bits/symbol b = 4 bits/symbol b = 2 bits/symbol Rb/K blocks/s Rb/b symbols/s Rb/b symbols/s Concentrator Modulator K bits/block b bits/symbol freq N-IFFT 9 RS symbols/s time Cyclic prefix insertion N symbols/block RS  K  N b 64-QAM Radio front-end (N+C) symbols/block Rb   N  C K .