Ph.

D Course Work

Dr. Hemant Sharma
Professor, ABS
Amity University, Gurgaon
sharma_hemant1@rediffmail.com
hsharma@ggn.amity.edu

What Research Is Not
• Research isn’t information gathering:
– Gathering information from resources such books or
magazines isn’t research.
– No contribution to new knowledge.

• Research isn’t the transportation of facts:
– Merely transporting facts from one resource to another
doesn’t constitute research.
– No contribution to new knowledge although this might
make existing knowledge more accessible.

What Research Is
• Research is:
“…the systematic process of collecting and analyzing
information (data) in order to increase our understanding
of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or
interested.”1

Research is like a journey

ESSENTIALS OF A RESEARCH
When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a
question, you are implying that the process;
1.is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches);
2.uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their
validity and reliability;
3. is designed to be unbiased and objective .
Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic
discipline in which you have been trained.
Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a
question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that
provides repeatability and accuracy.
Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased
manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without
introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight
something).

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Research is never ending process. . It is a cyclical process.

phenomenon. Correlational research . problem.attempts to describe systematically a situation.Types of Research Descriptive Correlational Explanatory Exploratory Descriptive research . service or programme. or describes attitudes towards an issue.attempts to discover or establish the existence of a relationship/ interdependence between two or more aspects of a situation. living condition of a community. say. or provides information about . .

Exploratory research. In practice most studies are a combination of the first three categories.Explanatory research.is undertaken to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study (feasibility study / pilot study).attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon. .

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Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY EXPLORATORY .

Degree of Problem Definition Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem)(Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) possible situation “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.”our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?” .

www.g.gov) • Pilot study – A number of diverse techniques • Focus Groups – 6 to 10 people in group dynamics session .Exploratory Research Techniques Three Examples • Secondary data (historical data) – Previously collected for another purpose – Literature survey – Databases (e..census.

5 lakhs • Graduates or above • Trying to juggle children and a job .Descriptive Research Example Femina magazine average customer: • Women • About 35 years old • Household income of about Rs 3.

.Descriptive Research Example Men’s fragrance market: • • • • 1/3 size of women’s fragrance market But growing at a faster pace Women buy 80 % of men’s fragrances Men select fragrance from choice of 4-5 while women choose from as many as 10.

Journal of Managerial Psychology 1998. Frank Shipper. The experimental group received feedback and management training… • The results of the study indicated that training enhanced the effectiveness of managerial skills. . • A study of the impact of training in a management development program based on 360 feedback.Causal Research • In this study the effects of a training program administered (IV) are evaluated using pre. • The control group received …no management training. Robert T.and post-observations of the participants' managerial skills (DV). Rosti Jr.

Identifying Causality • • Can NEVER prove causality. An absence of alternative plausible explanations • Often Use Experiments or Model building in Causal Research . Interdependent variation--two phenomena vary together 3. Evidence of causality: 1. The appropriate causal order of events 2.

descriptive or causal research • Predicting the stock prices of RIL in 2013.Classify in terms of exploratory. • Which of the two training programs is more effective? • How does the culture effect leadership at our branches globally? • Investigating reactions to a new taxation policy • Identifying target-market demographics of a new shopping mall • To understand the relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty .

THE RESEARCH PROCESS The research process is similar to undertaking a journey. 2) How to go about finding their answers? There are practical steps through which you must pass in your research journey in order to find answers to your research questions. The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology. . At each operational step in the research process you are required to choose from a multiplicity of methods. For a research journey there are two important decisions to make1) What you want to find out about? or what research questions (problems) you want to find answers to. procedures and models of research methodology which will help you to best achieve your objectives.

Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Discovery and Definition and so on Conclusions and Report Sampling Data Processing and Analysis Data Gathering .

Research Stages • Cyclical process .conclusions generate new ideas • Stages can overlap chronologically • Stages are functionally interrelated – Forward linkages – Backward linkages .

Problem discovery Problem Discovery and Definition Selection of Sample Design Sampling Selection of exploratory research technique Secondary Experience Pilot (historical) survey study data Probability Case study Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Experiment Laboratory Conclusions and Report Survey Field Interview Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Selection of basic research method Research Design Nonprobability Questionnaire Observation Secondary Data Study Interpretation of findings Report .

Stages In The Research Process • • • • • • • Problem Discovery and Problem Definition Review of Literature Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions And Report .

“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution” By Albert Einstein .

Problem Discovery • • • • • First and probably most important step Too often neglected leading to costly errors Provides direction for the project Problem. opportunity. or monitor operations Discovery before definition .

Women make better HR managers compared to men 3. It’s an intelligent assumption. Employees who are better trained have higher levels of job satisfaction 2. Examples:1. There is a relationship between technology upgradation and transmission losses .State the research questions and research objectives Hypothesis: A statement that can be refuted by empirical data.

. Narrow the topic down to something manageable.Interest: a research endeavour is usually time consuming. •Measurement of concepts: Make sure that you are clear about the indicators and measurement of concepts (if used) in your study. 2. 1. and involves hard work and possibly unforeseen problems.Considerations in selecting a research problem These help to ensure that your study will remain manageable and that you will remain motivated. specific and clear.Level of expertise: Make sure that you have adequate level of expertise for the task you are proposing since you need to do the work yourself. •Magnitude: It is extremely important to select a topic that you can manage within the time and resources at your disposal. One should select topic of great interest to sustain the required motivation.

make sure that data are available. Relevance: Ensure that your study adds to the existing body of knowledge.5. 7. bridges current gaps and is useful in policy formulation. This will help you to sustain interest in the study. Ethical issues: How ethical issues can affect the study population and how ethical problems can be overcome should be thoroughly examined at the problem formulating stage. . 6. Availability of data: Before finalizing the topic.

Steps in formulation of a research problem: Step 1: Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you. .

Research Design • Master plan • Specifies methods and procedures • Framework for action .

visible or hidden .Basic Research Methods • Surveys – Interview – Questionnaire • Experiments control conditions so that one or more variables can be manipulated to test a hypothesis – Field – Laboratory • Secondary data • Observation.

SAMPLE POPULATION .Selecting a Sample Sample: subset of a larger population.

nonzero probability of being selected – Nonprobability Samples .Sampling • Who is to be sampled? • How large a sample? • How will sample units be selected? – Probability Samples – every member of the population has a known.

Types of Sample Designs • Probability • Non Probability • • • • • • • • • • Simple random Systematic Stratified Cluster Convenience Judgmental Snowball Quota Opt-in Panel .

Data Gathering Stage • Focus on error minimization • Pretesting .

categorizing and recording the data . legibility and consistency • Coding Rules for interpreting.Data Processing and Analysis • Editing Checking the data collection forms for omissions.

Conclusions And Report Writing • Effective communication of the research findings • Usually includes making recommendations • “What does this mean to management?”Managerial Implications • Provides direction for future research. .

• Sales of our Irons and Kettles are 40% higher than our Ovens (OTG & MWO) appliances range.A large grocery retailer • Few customers are using our on-line banking products . • We’ve got permission from the government and we need to start our operations.Exercise: Translate Problems into objectives and hypothesis • Food catering to employees is consuming a lot of time and effort.

• Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology .Research Proposal • A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study.

. Prepare a Research Proposal in line the Research Process described in this session.Exercise for Session I & II The income tax department would like to increase its tax collection. At the same time it would also like to improve its service quality.

Questions?? .