University of Guyana

Faculty of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering

The Effective Road Bed Soil
Resilient Modulus – MR
Course: CIV 4105 (Highway
Lecturer: Mr. Ronald Roberts

University of Guyana
Faculty of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering

Presented in Partial Fulfilment for CIV
4105 (Highway Engineering) by:



Registration Number

Jaikeshan Takchandra


Stephen Liu


Presentation Outline
1. Introduction
2. Definition
 Stress
 Deformation & Strain
 Stiffness not Strength

3. Importance of the Resilient Modulus (M R)
4. How is MR Determined
5. MR Typical Values
6. Use of MR in Pavement Design
7. Conclusion
8. References

2006). Currently. empirical correlations developed between field and laboratory material properties are used to obtain highway performance characteristics (Titi.0 Introduction The 4 design and evaluation of pavement structures on base and subgrade soils requires a significant amount of supporting data. These correlations do not satisfy the design and analysis requirements since they neglect all possible failure mechanisms in the field. .1. et al..

. Accurate knowledge of the resilient modulus of materials within the pavement layer facilitates the determination of how the system would react to traffic loadings (Buchanan.1. the 1986 and the 5 subsequent 1993 AASHTO design guides recommended the use of the resilient modulus (MR) for characterizing base and subgrade soils and for designing flexible pavements. The resilient modulus accounts for soil deformation under repeated traffic loading with consideration of seasonal variations of moisture conditions.0 Introduction Recognizing this deficiency. 2008).

6 .0 Definition  The Resilient Modulus (MR) is a measure of subgrade material stiffness and is actually an estimate of its modulus of elasticity (Pavement Interactive. 2007).2. The modulus of elasticity as we know it is stress divided by strain for a slowly applied load however the resilient modulus is stress divided by strain for rapidly applied loads which are experienced by pavement structures.

2. the stress will be equal regardless of the soil type. As long as the applied load remains in full contact with the soil mass. However. if a wheel load is applied to a pavement structure. 7 . specific locations under the load will experience different levels of stress which is based on their respective depths from the pavement surface and distance away from the applied loading.1 Stress Stress is determined by dividing the applied load by the contact area of the material in question. The stress essentially provides a method of standardising load and area for testing and designing purposes.

Why. Alabama: Vulcan Materials Company. S. 8 .1 Stress Figure 1: Resilient Modulus Stress States. 2008.. Birmingham.2. Resilient Modulus: What. Taken from: Buchanan. and How?.

2015. . Purdue: Geotech Construction & Tech Support Engineer. Taken from: Siddiki. 9 INDOT.. Importance of Resilient Modulus and its Interpretation.2 Deformation & Strain Figure 2: Types of deformation.2. N.

The deformation will vary dependent on the soil properties.2 Deformation & Strain The observed magnitude of the soil deformation as a result of the applied loading will vary. a portion of the deformation may be recoverable or “resilient” while the remainder is unrecoverable or “plastic”.2. As long as the applied load is constant. 10 .

2 Deformation & Strain Figure 3: A typical specimen response during a loading and unloading cycle. and How?. S. 2008. Birmingham. Alabama: Vulcan Materials Company.. Resilient Modulus: What. 11 .2. Taken from: Buchanan. Why.

12 . The resilient modulus can be determined at many combinations of applied loading and confinement. The ultimate strength or stress is the point at which failure occurs under applied loading.3 Stiffness not Strength It must be noted that the resilient modulus is a stiffness measurement and not the strength of the material.2.

the system can be designed to carry the design axle load applications during its service life.3. the pavement layers and their dimensions are designed in accordance with the AASHTO Pavement Design Guide. By varying the pavement layer’s thicknesses and stiffness. Based on the structural number (SN) value. 13 . This parameter is utilised to directly determine the structural coefficient of the untreated base and subbase layer.0 Importance of Resilient Modulus The resilient modulus is utilised to characterise pavement materials under loading conditions that will not result in failure of the pavement system.

4. 1993-i) 14 .0 How is MR Determined The resilient Modulus can be determined from one of the following three methods 1) Laboratory Testing 2) From material properties – soil information is used to estimate MR values 3) Back-calculation from deflection data of a particular pavement design (AASHTO.

1 Laboratory Testing Lab testing is accomplished through a variant of the Triaxial Test Principle: repeated axial and cyclic stresses of fixed magnitude and duration and is usually electronically monitored The most common methods are AASHTO T 274 and AASHTO T 307 – Determining the resilient modulus of soil aggregate materials (AASHTO.4. 1993-ii) Generally. the methods involves an axial stress applied through a haversine load and rest method 15 .

8 sec .1 Laboratory Testing 1. or 0.2 and 0.4. Cylindrical samples of Fig 4.1 and 0. Michigan State University. Linear variable deformation transducer (LVDTs) are installed to measure deformation 4. 5-136 16 4” D by 8”. Sample is pre-tested for failure using a haversine 0. USA. Pp.9 sec.1: Triaxial Cell From:BALADI (2009) Pavement Subgrade Mr Design Values for Michigan’s Season Changes. Samples are placed in the apparatus 3. or 6” D by 12” 2.

9.1 Laboratory Testing 5. 17 cycles The test loads are specified at 3-4 psi for base and sub-base materials. If permanent vertical strain reaches 5% during pre-test.4. 8. the process is terminated Testing: the test is performed using the load sequence The results from the triaxial test is represented on a Mohr’s Circle for further analysis . and 1-10 psi for road bed materials. 7. Samples are loaded for a minimum of 1000 6.

1 Laboratory Testing Fig 4. 1-52 18 . Pp.2: Mohr’s Circle From:HARRIGAN. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. E (2004) Laboratory Determination of Resilient Modulus for Flexible Pavement Design.4. Transportation Research Board.

4.1 Laboratory Testing 26 5   19 .

and How?. 2008.. Alabama: Vulcan Materials Company. Why.3: Regression analysis From:Buchanan. Birmingham. S. .4.1 Laboratory Testing   20 Figure 4. Resilient Modulus: What.

2008) 21 .1 Laboratory Testing (Buchanan.4.

2 Material Properties    Conversations to: R-Value (AASHTO. 1993- ii) 22 Modulus of Sub-grade reaction (Hall) .4. 1993-ii) a1 -Layer one thickness (AASHTO.

1993-i) National Cooperative Highway Research Program (2004) – improves accuracy and surpasses limitations of the former 23 .4.2 Material Properties  Conversations   to: CBR – California Bearing Ratio For fine graded soils of CBR less than 20 (AASHTO.

O.T. 2004) . 1962) 711 (Green & Hall.2 Material Properties    Conversations to: CBR – California Bearing Ratio (cont’d) a) b) c) 24 (Heukelom & Klomp.4. 1975) (Ohio D.

P = applied load. 1993-i) 25 . inches (AASHTO.3 Back-calculation   Where.4. lbs dr = measured deflection at radial distance r inches r = radial distance measured.

5.000 psi – 60.000 psi 26 .0 Typical MR Values Unbound aggregate base materials: 15.

and the resilient modulus models the approximate material’s behavior Layered elastic analysis becomes easier when using the resilient modulus and Poisson’s Ration since one is able to predict a linear elastic analysis Strain at the bottom of an asphalt system could lead to fatigue. which would eventually cause cracking in the surface layer due to deformation of the subgrade 27 .0 MR use in Pavement Design Pavement materials are not exclusively elastic.6.

recognizing that the behavior is difficult to generalize The resilient modulus is highly dependent on the stress state (i. bulk stress and confining pressure) Each pavement design should have its specific calculated resilient modulus based on its structure and load application 28 .0 Conclusion MR is a key characterization parameter for granular materials It closely models the resilient behavior of a granular material.7.e.


2015. 2nd ed. [Online] Available at: http://www.  Siddiki.References  AASHTO. 2008. M. Elias.. Milwaukee: Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics. 1993. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. H.. 2006. INDOT. Resilient Modulus: What. Resilient Modulus. S.pavementinteractive.C.  Pavement Interactive. & Helwany. Alabama: Vulcan Materials Company. Importance of Resilient Modulus and it’s Interpretation. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures 1993.. 30 . H. Why. B. Washington [Accessed 19 December 2015a]. Purdue: Geotech Construction & Tech Support Engineer..: American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials.  Buchanan. Birmingham.  Titi. and How?. S. N. Determination of Typical Resilient Modulus Values for Selected Soils in Wisconsin. 2007.

Transportation Research Board. 31 . 1-52  YODER. (1975) Principles of Pavement Design. M.C. 2nd Edition. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 5-136  HARRIGAN. D. E. pp. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. W. USA.References  AASHTO (1993-i) Standard Specification for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing. E (2004) Laboratory Determination of Resilient Modulus for Flexible Pavement Design. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Pp. D. Pp. Washington.C. Washington. Michigan State University. 33-114  BALADI (2009) Pavement Subgrade Mr Design Values for Michigan’s Season Changes. I & WITCZAK. pp. 1-624  AASHTO (1993-ii) Guide for Design of Pavement Structures.