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NETWORKING

Computer Networks

INTERNET
is the global system of
interconnected computer networks
that use theInternetprotocol suite
(TCP/IP) to link billions of devices
worldwide.

COMPUTER NETWORKS
is a set ofcomputersconnected
together for the purpose of sharing
resources. The most common resource
shared today is connection to the
Internet. Other shared resources can
include a printer or a file server.

Advantages of a
Computer Networks

Sharing information
Sharing hardware resources
Sharing software resources
Preserve information
Communication

Network Interface Card (NIC)


Anetwork interface controller(NIC, also known as anetwork
interface card,network adapter, LAN adapter or physicalnetwork
interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component
that connects a computer to a computernetwork.

Network Devices
Repeater
is an electronic device that receives a
signal and retransmits it at a higher
level or higher power, or onto the other
side of an obstruction, so that the signal
can cover longer distances.

Bridge
bridgeis anetworkdevice that
connects multiplenetworksegments.

Hub
commonly used to connect segments of
a LAN. Ahubcontains multiple ports.
When a packet arrives at one port, it is
copied to the other ports so that all
segments of the LAN can see all
packets.

Switch
(also calledswitchinghub, bridging
hub, officially MAC bridge) is a
computernetworking devicethat
connectsdevicestogether on a
computernetwork, by using
packetswitchingto receive, process
and forward data to the
destinationdevice.

Router
routeris a device that forwards data
packets along networks. Arouteris
connected to at least two networks,
commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN
and its ISP's network.Routersare
located at gateways, the places where
two or more networks connect.

Types of Networks
Personal Area Network (PAN)
The interconnection of information
technology devices with in the range of
a individual person, typically with in a
range of 10 meters.

Local Area Network(LAN)


is anetworkthat connects computers
and other devices in a relatively small
area, typically a single building or a
group of buildings. MostLANsconnect
workstations and personal computers
and enable users to access data and
devices (e.g., printers and modems)
anywhere on the network.

Local Area Network (LAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)


is a telecommunicationsnetworkor
computernetwork that extends over a
large geographical distance. Wide area
networksoften are established with
leased telecommunication circuits.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Internetworking
is the practice of connecting a computer
network with other networks through
the use of gateways that provide a
common method of routing information
packets between the networks.

Internetworking

Intranet
is a network based on TCP/IP protocols
(an internet) belonging to an
organization, usually a corporation,
accessible only by the organization's
members, employees, or others with
authorization

Intranet

Network Topology
is the arrangement of the various
elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a
computernetwork. Essentially, it is
the topologicalstructure of
anetworkand may be depicted
physically or logically.

Parts of Network Topology

Physical Topology
refers to the interconnected structure of
a local area network (LAN). The method
employed to connect
thephysicaldevices on the network
with the cables, and the type of cabling
used, all constitute thephysical
topology.

Logical Topology
is how devices appear connected to the
user.

Consideration when choosing a


topology
Cost of network management
Cable length
Growth of the network

Bus Topology
is a specific kind of
networktopologyin which all of the
various devices in the network are
connected to a single cable or line. In
general, the term refers to how
various devices are set up in a
network

Ring Topology
refers to a specific kind of network
setup in which devices are connected
in aringand pass information to or
from each other according to their
adjacent proximity in
theringstructure

Star Topology
is a networktopologywhere each
individual piece of a network is
attached to a central node (often
called a hub or switch).

Extended Star Topology


made up of all connected
individualstar topologies.
~astarnetwork with an additional
networking device connected to the
main networking device. ~it is a
network cable connects to one
switch, and then several other
switches connect to the first switch.

Hierarchical Topology
network models are iterative
algorithms for creating networks
which are able to reproduce the
unique properties of the scalefreetopologyand the high
clustering of the nodes at the same
time.

Mesh Topology
is anetwork topologyin which
each node relays data for
thenetwork. Allmeshnodes
cooperate in the distribution of data
in thenetwork.Mesh
networkscan relay messages using
either a flooding technique or a
routing technique.

Networking Media
is the actual path over which an
electrical signal travels as it moves
from one component to another. This
chapter describes the common types
ofnetwork media, including
twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable,
fiber-optic cable, and wireless

Coaxial cable
are a type ofcablethat is used
bycableTV and that is common for data
communications. Taking a a round crosssection of thecable, one would find a
single center solid wire symmetrically
surrounded by a braided or foil conductor.
Between the center wire and foil is a
insulating dielectric.

Twisted pair cable


is the ordinary copper wire that
connects home and many business
computers to the telephone company. To
reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic
induction betweenpairsof wires, two
insulated copper wires
aretwistedaround each other.

Fiber Optic Cable


Cable consists of a bundle of glass
threads, each of which is capable of
transmitting messages modulated onto
light waves.

Cabling
Straight Thru
is a type of twisted paircopper wire
cable for local area network (LAN) use
for which the RJ-45 connectors at each
end have the samepin out(i.e.,
arrangement of conductors).

Cross Over
is a type of twisted pair copper
wirecablefor LANs (local area network)
in which the wires on thecableare
crossedoverso that the receive signal
pins on the RJ-45 connector on one end
are connected to the transmit signal
pins on the RJ-45 connector on the other
end.

Internet Protocol
is a numerical label assigned to each
device (e.g., computer, printer)
participating in a computer network
thatusesthe Internet Protocol for
communication. AnIP
addressserves two principal
functions: host or network interface
identification and location
addressing.

Uniform Resource
Locator(URL)
is the unique address for a file that is
accessible on the Internet. A
common way to get to a Web siteis
to enter the URL of itshome pagefile
in your Webbrowser's address line.