Heat Transfer

Equipment
Some Industrial Applications
Teo Chee Seng
17 Feb 2015

Agenda
Types of Heat Exchangers
 Typical Applications in Oil refinery
 Cryogenic applications in LNG industry
 Design
 Operations
 Vendors
 Practical aspects

air fin coolers ◦ Chillers eg. Steam reboilers. Chilled water coolers ◦ Cryogenic eg. air separation HXs . Propane refrigeration coolers. Water coolers. distillation column reboilers ◦ Cooler eg.Types of HXs  HXs can be broadly divided by the following applications ◦ Heat exchange eg. Cold crude oil versus hot column residue ◦ Boilers eg.

Typical Applications in oil refinery Shell and Tube (S&T) HXs are the majority  Water coolers – trim coolers or rundown coolers  Air cooled HXs – distillation column condensers  Steam heaters – reboilers or preheater  Hot oil heaters – closed loop process heating  .

Preheat Train – Simplified Flow Scheme in CDU .

Crude Pre-heat network .

special baffles  Efficiency of network has an impact on unit throughput and fuel consumption o application of online chemical cleaning o optimization of cleaning schedule .Preheat Train Heat transfer through S&T HXs  Design of heat exchange network is optimised by matching temperature level considering  o application of pinch technology in design o spiral heat inserts.

air separation units  Spool wound heat exchangers in LNG liquefaction plants  Printed circuit exchangers in offshore platforms  Propane “kettles” characterized by narrow temperature approaches  In LNG terminals. LNG Plate exchangers in LNG plants. LNG is vaporised into natural gas using vaporisers (ORVs or SCVs)  ◦ ORV – Open Rack Vaporisers ◦ SCV – Submerged Combustion Vaporisers .Cryogenic Applications eg.

Typical LNG Receiving Terminal Flow Scheme Flare / Vent Second Metering Station etc. BOG Compressor Recondenser LNG Tanks Vaporiser s LNG Carrier In-tank Pumps HP Pumps Utilities Metering Station BTU adjustment / odorisation 9 .

Open Rack Vaporizer ORV conceptional flow 10 .

Open Rack Vaporizer .

Submerged Combustion Vaporizer – Ext View   12 .

Submerged Combustion Vaporizer – Int View 13 .

gea-heatexchangers.com/product s/finned-tube-heat-exchangers/air-fin-coo lers-for-oil-and-gas/  .ACHEs Banks of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers are used as condensers in baseload LNG liquefaction plants  http://www.

Spool Wound HX   Aluminium HX for enhanced heat transfer Very specialised equipment for Air/NG liquefaction .

Design : General Considerations Service – fouling / corrosive?  Temperature difference / approach  Allowable/available pressure drop  O&M philosophy  Applicable codes and regulations  CAPEX / OPEX  .

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Note the lower OHTC for gas-gas HX .

HX TEMA classification .

Design Codes .

Common S&T  Fixed Tubesheet (TEMA type BEM) ◦ Cheap and easy construction ◦ Tubes fixed on both ends. tube external not accessible for cleaning  U tube (TEMA type BEU) ◦ Good for large differential Ts ◦ Limited internal tube cleaning .

Common S&T  Floating Head (TEMA type BES) ◦ Allow access to shell & tube external for cleaning ◦ Good for large dTs ◦ Expensive  Kettle Reboiler ◦ Meant for vaporising medium either heating eg. Distillation column bottom reboilers or chilling like propane refrigerant ◦ Vapour space allows liquid and gas separation .

N2. natural gas etc B .Plate type HE A    A) PCHE B) Plate Fin type Often applied for narrow temperature differences and clean services like air.

Operations : Process Monitoring (I)   Typical “task” for process engineer is to monitor the effectiveness of heat exchange network WHY? ◦ Lower efficiency means increased firing in furnaces leading to more burning more fuel and higher costs ◦ Efficiency reduces with time due to “fouling”  How to monitor? ◦ Trending the overall heat transfer coefficient of individual HXs or groups of HXs ◦ There is no OHTC meter! OHTC has to be back calculated based on temperatures and flowrates ◦ An alternative is to monitor the fouling factors – essentially the same principle as OHTC ◦ “normalisation” to the right flowrates and temperature is important as differernt flowrates and temperature can have significant effect on OHTC calculations  Decide when to clean and what to clean! .

Example : Preheat Train   Key process parameters to monitor are o Furnace Inlet Temperature o Individual exchanger heat transfer coefficient trends o Individual exchanger delta P Pix showing tube internal cleaning of the tube bundle .

Operations : Process Monitoring (II) For water coolers and air coolers. there are often no flowmeters and temperature meters on the air/water side  Monitoring is often by setting a “baseline” eg after a maintenance shutdown when equipment is clean  Troubleshooting is often via hand held meters like an IR meter to gauge the temperature of the process / portable ultrasonic flowmeters for water flow measurement  Comparison against design values often give good clues to current performance – process models on rating mode is very useful  .

Vendors S&T HXs equipment are no longer considered specialized equipment and there are many vendors in the world  Brazed aluminum plate exchangers are more “specials” – Chart industries/Linde are two of the leading vendors  Printed circuit HX is a special small form factor compact HX offered by Heatric  SWHE – specialised HX offered by APCI/Linde for cryogenic applications  .

cleaning schedule. fouling etc need to be considered in the initial design Relevant experience is important in choice of HX to be applied Trend is towards more online cleaning. flushing. nonintrusive monitoring and process monitoring via simulation .Practical Aspects     Heat exchangers are crucial pieces of equipment in maintaining unit throughput and optimizing fuel efficiency O&M know how and considerations like space requirements. valving arrangements.

tema.htri.Some links Movie on heat exchanger incident at the Tesoro refinery  https://www.org/  Prices  .net/  http://www.