The Skinner’s Model of
Shaping Desired Behaviour
 Definition:

The practice of providing
consequences for both positive and
negative behaviours.

• Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by reinforcement. • Behaviour is also weakened by punishment.Skinner’s ideas • Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils' behaviour in desired directions. .

.Behaviour modification Pupil perform desired act Teacher gives reward Pupil tends to repeat the act.

.Pupil perform an undesired act Teacher ignores the act or punishes the pupil Praises a pupil who is behaving correctly Pupil who misbehaved will less likely to repeat the act.

checks.verbal comments.marks of various kinds such as numerals.Types of reinforcements used in behavior modification • Social .real objects that pupils can earn as rewards . gestures. • Activity . • Graphic .activities that pupils prefer to do in school •  Tangible . and special symbols. happy faces. and facial expressions.

The approach may seem too much like bribery to some teachers           Standards of behavior are uniform. decide on solutions. consistent.STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES            It is simple to use. weigh alternatives.  The results might not last long            Students may not perform as desired when rewards are terminated           It accommodates most teachers' desire to maintain control. and clear to all students.  To use so much control in a democratic society may be unethical         It can be readily employed with all students regardless of age.  Students may not learn how to govern their own behavior. or develop their intellect . in society.          Students can feel successful when they obtain rewards. or at school           Time does not have to be spent in class discussing rules and students' conduct.   Students do not get an opportunity to clarify emotions. It ignores any underlying problems caused by influences at home.           Results are immediate.

• that almost all behavior is chosen. . and • that we are driven by our genes to satisfy five basic needs: survival.The Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory  Choice theory states that: • all we do is behave. love and belonging. power. freedom and fun.

Concept • Pupils can choose to act the way they want to • Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad behaviour • Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices • No excuses for bad behavior • There is always consequences follow the behavior • Class rules are essential and they must be enforced. • Classroom meeting .

Teachers’ duty • Emphasise pupil responsibility • Establish rules that lead to success • Accept no excuses • Call for value judgment • Invoke reasonable consequences • Be persistent .

— . — They help students understand their needs and how to satisfy these need legitimately.Strengths Weaknesses Promote a high degree of autonomy and responsibility for students. Difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their need for control without feeling threatened themselves. Difficult to help students who do not want to be in school to make plans to improve their behaviour. Classroom meetings may consume more time than is desirable. — They allow students to determine solutions to their own discipline problems. — They help students see a wide range of possible consequences for their behaviours. Difficult to react properly when communicating with students about their inappropriate behaviours.

Gordon’s Model • Teachers can plot pupil’s behaviour into a diagram called “Behaviour Window” Behaviour Window Communication skills active listening confrontative Imessages shifting gears no-lose conflict resolution values collisions .

"Who owns the problem?".  For example. Although the teacher should send the message that daydreaming is unacceptable. he or she will have to accept responsibility for changing the behaviour.  Although the teacher ultimately assumes responsibility for the classroom. . the problem is the student's and. ultimately. the student actually "owns" many of the problems.“WHO OWN THE PROBLEM?”  Gordon reminds teachers to ask themselves. one daydreaming student does not interfere with the progress of an entire class.

messages that tell another person how you feel about their behaviour.changing from Confrontative to a listening posture • Win-Lose conflict resolution .blaming statements • Confrontative "I" Messages .messages that attempt to influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour. • "You" messages .ends the dispute temporarily with a winner and a loser. • Shifting Gears . .Key ideas • "I" messages .

words or actions that invites folks to talk about what is on their minds • Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating understanding of what another person is saying • Values Collisions.everyone wins • Door openers .anything concrete that a person believes will be able to improve quality of life etc: food or money .• No-Lose conflict resolution .

 Step 2: Generate alternatives. Good solutions depend on accurate identification of the problem at hand. Once the problem is clarified a number of possible solutions should be generated .SIX STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS  Step 1: Identify and define the problem or situation.

 Step 3: Evaluate the alternative suggestions. . The goal is to choose a solution that is agreeable to all  Step 4: Make the decision. the one that seems to suit most people best is selected for trial. When alternatives have been specified. After examining the alternatives. participants are asked to comment on them.

The results of the trial solution or decision are analysed and evaluated. The trial solution is put into place with the understanding that it may or may not work as anticipated and that it can be changed if necessary. .  Step 6: Conduct a follow-up evaluation. Step 5: Implement the solution or decision.

Teachers may find some difficulty changing their role from directing and controlling students to actively listening.Strengths Weaknesses It promotes autonomy and selfregulation for students. It helps teachers communicate their needs to students so that students can appreciate how their behaviours affects others. It allows students to deal with personal problems and feelings. It promotes good student-teacher relationships. Transmitting I-messages instead of you-messages will be understandably difficult for teachers to master. A more comprehensive approach may be needed to help teachers avoid having to deal with the number of possible problems likely to surface. Teachers may have difficulty accepting value differences between themselves and their students. .