THE

HUMAN
SKELETA
L
SYSTEM

TYPES OF BONES
1.COMPACT
BONES
-dense ad looks smooth
and homogenous

2. SPONGY
BONES
-composed of small
needlelike pieces of bones and
lots of open space.

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
ACCORDING TO SHAPE
1. LONG BONES
- Are typically longer than they are wide. As a rule they have shaft with heads
at both ends.

Humerus, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
ACCORDING TO SHAPE
2. SHORT BONES
- Generally cube-shaped and contains
mostly spongy bone.

Carpals and Tarsals

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
ACCORDING TO SHAPE
3. FLAT BONES
Are thin, flattened, and usually curved..

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, ribs, scapula, patella

face bones. sacrum. IRREGULAR BONES . ear bones. sphenoid. mandible. ethmoid.CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO SHAPE 4. coccyx.Bones that do not fit one of the preceding categories Vertebrae. .

STRUCTURE OF THE LONG BONES MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE .

that secure the periosteum to the underlying bones. . PERIOSTEUM – a fibrous connective tissue membrane. DIAPHYSIS of Shaft – makes up most of the bones length. 2. PERFORATING or SHARPEY’s FIBERS – hundreds of connective tissue fibers. providing strong support.STRUCTURE OF THE LONG MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE BONES 1. that covers and protects the diaphysis. Compose of compact bones. 3.

MARROW or MEDULLARY CAVITY . EPIPHYSES.are the ends of the long bones. . 6. 5.STRUCTURE OF THE LONG MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE BONES 4. ARTICULAR CARTILAGEthin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers articular or joint surfaces of epiphyses.tube like hollow in diaphysis of long bones. Consist of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone.

STRUCTURE OF THE LONG MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE BONES EPIPHYSEAL LINE EPIPHYSEAL PLATE . . Cause the lengthwise growth. .A remnant of the epiphyseal plate.A flate plate of hyaline cartilage.

a.STRUCTURE OF THE LONG BONES MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE 1. HAVERSIAN CANAL – contains blood vessels and lymphatic vessels .ultrasmall canals radiating in all directions. LACUNAE – “little lakes” small spaces containing tissue fluid in which bone cells lie imprisoned. HAVERSIAN SYSTEM or OSTEON– structural units of compact bone matrix. LAMELLAE – concentric. b. CANALICULI. c. d. cylinder-shaped layers of calcified matrix.

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Cells contain a nucleus and a thin ring of cytoplasm. is the most abundant[citation needed] cell found in compact bone.OSTEOCYTES – Mature bone cells. . a star-shaped cell. An osteocyte.

Depression or Cavities – indentations in the bone. .BONE . b. and MARKINGS ligaments were attached and where blood vessels and nerves pass. TWO CATEGORIES OF BONE MARKINGS a. Projection or Processes – grows out from the bone surface.Reveals where muscles. tendons.

BONE FORMATION. . A mass or deposit of such material. The hardening or calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material. AND REMODELING The process of creating bone. GROWTH. The natural process of bone formation. that is of transforming cartilage (or fibrous tissue) into bone.

FRACTURES .

• •Oblique Fracture – The fracture is diagonal to a bone’s long axis. •Spiral Fracture – At least one part of the bone has been twisted. but the skin is not lacerated.The skin may be pierced by the bone or by a blow that breaks the skin at the time of the fracture. . •Comminuted fracture .TYPES OF FRACTURES •Closed or simple fracture – The bone is broken. •Open or compound fracture .A fracture that results in three or more bone fragments. causing a bend on the other side of the bone. •Transverse fracture – The fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone •Greenstick fracture . The bone may or may not be visible in the wound.Fracture on one side of the bone.

SIMPLE FRACTURE .

COMPOUND .

TRANSVERSE .

GREENSTICK .

SPIRAL FRACTURE .

COMMINUTED .

OBLIQUE FRACTURE .

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4.formation of strong permanent “ patch” at the fracture site. BONE REMODELLING . 2. disposal of dead tissue by phagocytosis. bone cells died and swelling occurs.rupture of blood vessels.the fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced by spongy bones. 3. . SPLINTING OF BREAKS IS SPLINTED BY A FIBROCARTILAGE CALLUS . HEMATOMA IS FORMED . .1. FORMATION OF BONY CALLUS.growth of new capillaries.

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Bony Thorax . Vertebral Column 3. THREE PARTS: 1. Skull 2.AXIAL SKELETON Forms the longitudinal axis of the body.

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HINGE .Hinge A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an apendage.

Saddle A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down. bot does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint. SADDLE .

Ball and Socket A ball and socket joint allows for radial movment in almost any direction. BALL AND SOCKET . They are found in the hips and shoulders.

ng gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding jo .

Ellipsoid to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The .

Pivot forearms have pivot joints. In th . In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis.