CELL DIVISION

HOW DO CELLS
DIVIDE?

 gene   Locus (loci)   the specific location of a gene on a chromosome genome   basic unit of heredity. codes for a specific trait the total hereditary endowment of DNA of a cell or organism somatic cell  all body cells except reproductive cells .Terms to remember.

e.  Gamete   Chromosome   reproductive cells (i. sperm & eggs) elongate cellular structure composed of DNA and protein .they are the vehicles which carry DNA in cells diploid (2n)  cellular condition where each chromosome type is represented by two homologous chromosomes .Terms to remember.

Chromosomes .

 haploid (n)   homologous chromosome   chromosome of the same size and shape which carry the same type of genes Chromatid   cellular condition where each chromosome type is represented by only one chromosome one of two duplicated chromosomes connected at the centromere Centromere  region of chromosome where microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis .Terms to remember.

Chromosomes .

an organism is 2n = 4.• • • • • Example . Chromosomes 1 & 2 are homologous chromosomes Chromosomes 3 & 4 are homologous chromosomes Chromosomes 1 & 3 came from the mother Chromosomes 2 & 4 came from the father .

mitosis .The Cell Cycle G1 .DNA synthesis (replication) G2 .first gap S .second gap M .

Mitosis .

Mitosis Mitosis is the process of forming (generally) identical daughter cells by replicating and dividing the original chromosomes. in effect making a cellular xerox.  . Mitosis deals only with the segregation of the chromosomes and organelles into daughter cells. **Commonly the two processes of cell division are confused.

 .  chromatids .area where both chromatids are in contact with each other **kinetochores are on the outer sides of the centromere.Mitosis kinetochore .microtubules of the spindle apparatus attach.two molecules of DNA  centromere .

Mitosis   replicated chromosomes are positioned near the middle of the cytoplasm and then segregated so that each daughter cell receives a copy of the original. To do this cells utilize microtubules (spindle .

Stages of Mitosis Prophase Metapha se Anaphas e Telophas e .

Interphase "resting" or non-mitotic portion of the cell cycle.  It is comprised of G1. and G2 stages of the cell cycle.  DNA is replicated during the S phase of Interphase  . S.

Prophase  Chromatin condenses **chromatin/DNA replicate during Interphase the nuclear envelope dissolves  centrioles (if present) divide and migrate  kinetochores and kinetochore fibers form  spindle forms.  .

Events of Prophase .

Events of Prophase .

.The chromosomes (now consist of chromatids held together by centromere) migrate to the equator of the spindle. where the spindles attach to the kinetochore fibers.

and the pulling of chromosomes (we call them chromosomes after the centromeres are separated) to opposite poles of the spindle. .Anaphase begins with the separation of the centromeres.

. chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles  the nuclear envelope reforms  chromosomes uncoil into chromatin form  nucleolus (which had disappeared during Prophase) reform.

.Cytokinesis the process of splitting the daughter cells apart.

MITOSIS .

Questions? .

2000. Image from Purves et al. 1998.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookmito. Farabee.References/Images     Rod-Shaped Bacterium.com/) and WH Freeman ( http://www.whfreeman. 4th Edition. 1994. 4th Edition.. Image from Purves et al.810).J.com/) The events of Prophase.denniskunkel.sinauer. Life: The Science of Biology. by Sinauer Associates (http://www.maricopa.com Structure of a eukaryotic chromosome. coli. This image is copyright Dennis Kunkel at http://www.com/) Text ©1992. www. by Sinauer Associates ( http://www. 2001.sinauer.whfreeman. strain 0157:H7 (division) (SEM x22.ht ml . Life: The Science of Biology.com/) and WH Freeman ( http://www.emc. 1997. hemorrhagic E.. by M.