SEMINAR PRESENTATION

Alok Kumar Maurya
Meenal Kesarwani
Amal Shukla
Shiba Seth
Aparna Soni

HVAC
 HVAC stands for heating,

ventilation and air conditioning
and refers to the equipment,
distribution network and terminals
used either collectively or
individually to provide fresh
filtered air, heating, cooling and
humidity control in a building.
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Outdoor air Mixed air Return air prefilter H V A C Filter Centrifugal plant Air register louvered ductwork Drain pan coils .

FILTERED AIR. THIS SYSTEM INVOLVES THREE SEPARATE CYCLES: -THE AIR CYCLING THROUGH THE DUCTS INSIDE THE HOUSE -THE FLOW OF AIR THROUGH THE UNIT OUTSIDE THE HOUSE -THE CIRCULATION OF THE REFRIGERANT BETWEEN THE INSIDE OUTSIDE UNITS. OR STALE. IN POPULAR USAGE. AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS ARE FAIRLY COMPLEX. SO THEY ARE USUALLY INSTALLED AS A HOUSE IS BEING BUILT. AND PURITY AT ALL TIMES.DEFINITION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS ARE USED TO KEEP HOUSEHOLD AIR FROM BECOMING UNCOMFORTABLY HOT. MANY SO-CALLED AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS CONSIST MERELY OF BLOWER-EQUIPPED REFRIGERATING UNITS THAT PROVIDE ONLY A FLOW OF COOL. REGARDLESS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS. THE TERM AIR CONDITIONING OFTEN IS APPLIED IMPROPERLY TO AIR COOLING. HUMID. 5 . AN AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM CONSISTS OF CENTRALIZED EQUIPMENT THAT PROVIDES AN ATMOSPHERE WITH CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE. HOWEVER. AND THEORETICALLY. HUMIDITY.

This cool water supplies a coil. 􀂃 Chilled water systems use water cooled by a refrigeration machine instead of air.There are three basic types of air conditioners: 􀂃 Direct expansion coolers include window air conditioners. which lowers the temperature of the air. 6 . refrigerant-filled coil. 􀂃 Evaporative (or “swamp”) coolers are usually only appropriate in hot. which cools and dehumidifies the air. The result is evaporation of moisture. heat pumps and packaged or rooftop units. Air is cooled and dehumidified as it moves past a cold. dry climates and bring hot air in contact with a water spray or damp surface.

THE PRINCIPLE REFRIGERATION CYCLE  AN AIR CONDITIONER IS BASICALLY A REFRIGERATOR WITHOUT THE INSULATED BOX. CAUSING IT TO BECOME HOT. LOW-PRESSURE FREON GAS. IT USES THE EVAPORATION OF A REFRIGERANT.  THE COMPRESSOR COMPRESSES COOL FREON GAS. HIGHPRESSURE FREON GAS.  THE FREON LIQUID RUNS THROUGH AN EXPANSION VALVE.  THE MECHANICS OF THE FREON EVAPORATION CYCLE ARE THE SAME IN A REFRIGERATOR AS IN AN AIR CONDITIONER. TO PROVIDE COOLING. AND IN THE PROCESS IT EVAPORATES TO BECOME COLD. LIKE FREON. AND IT CONDENSES INTO A LIQUID.  THIS COLD GAS RUNS THROUGH A SET OF COILS THAT ALLOW THE GAS TO ABSORB HEAT AND COOL DOWN THE AIR INSIDE THE BUILDING COLD FREON GAS HOT FREON GAS 7 .  THIS HOT GAS RUNS THROUGH A SET OF COILS SO IT CAN DISSIPATE ITS HEAT.

LATER RETURNING TO BE COOLED AGAIN. WHICH COOLS THE AIR AND TRANSPORTS THE HEAT OUT OF THE HOUSE.AIR CYCLE AIR PASSES THROUGH A FILTER TO REMOVE DUST PARTICLES. THEN IT ENTERS A BLOWER. WHICH SENDS THE AIR INTO THE EVAPORATOR. COOLED BY OUTSIDE AIR. CLEAN. THE REFRIGERANT IS CONDENSED. COOL AIR THEN PASSES THROUGH THE DUCT SYSTEM AND THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE. AND THEN SENT BACK TO THE EVAPORATOR 8 . THE HOT AIR VAPORIZES THE REFRIGERANT. COMPRESSED.

HENCE THE TEMPERATURES OF THE SURROUNDING SUBSTANCES ARE LOWERED. OR COIL. EVAPORATOR THE EVAPORATOR IS SIMPLY A BANK. THERE ARE FIVE MAIN ELEMENTS. OF COPPER TUBING. HEAT FLOWING FROM THE AIR SPACES OR ARTICLES TO BE COOLED INTO THE COIL CAUSES THE LIQUID TO BOIL. CARRYING WITH IT THE UNWANTED HEAT. IN THE CIRCUIT OF MECHANISMS THROUGH WHICH THE REFRIGERANT FREON 12 FLOWS. THE LATTER PORTION OF THE EVAPORATOR COIL IS THEREFORE FILLED WITH FREON 12 VAPOR AT LOW-PRESSURE. STARTING FROM THE POINT WHERE WE WISH TO REMOVE HEAT: 1) EVAPORATOR 2) COMPRESSOR 3) CONDENSER 4) LIQUID RECEIVER 5) EXPANSION VALVE. BOILING CAN TAKE PLACE ONLY AT THE ENTRANCE OF LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION.C. 9 .WORKING OF A. IT IS FILLED WITH REFRIGERANT AT LOW PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE. AND THIS LATENT HEAT CAN COME ONLY FROM THE SURROUNDING SUBSTANCES. VARIOUS CONTROL AND SAFETY DEVICES ARE CONNECTED INTO THE CIRCUIT. IN ADDITION.

THE FREON 12 IS COMPRESSED FROM A LOWPRESSURE VAPOR TO A HIGH-PRESSURE VAPOR. IS THE MECHANISM THAT KEEPS THE FREON 12 IN CIRCULATION THROUGH THE SYSTEM. THE COMPRESSOR IS OPERATING AND THE SUCTION WHICH IT EXERTS (ON THE EVAPORATOR SIDE OF ITS CIRCUIT) PULLS THE HEAT-LADEN VAPOR OUT OF THE EVAPORATOR. COMPRESSOR THIS VAPOR DOES NOT REMAIN IN THE EVAPORATOR. AND ITS TEMPERATURE THEREFORE RISES. 10 .WORKING OF A. AND INTO THE COMPRESSOR. IN THE COMPRESSOR CYLINDERS. THEREFORE. THROUGH THE PIPING.C. THE COMPRESSOR.

AND THEREFORE THE VAPOUR CONDENSES BACK TO THE LIQUID STATE. WHERE THE VAPOUR PASSES AROUND THE TUBES THROUGH WHICH WATER IS CONTINUOUSLY PUMPED. 11 . THE LIQUID IN THIS RECEIVER ACTS AS A SEAL BETWEEN THE VAPOR IN THE CONDENSER AND THE LIQUID AS IT FLOWS INTO THE NEXT ELEMENT. SO THAT THE LIQUID FREON 12 IN THE EXPANSION VALVE MAY BE FREE OF VAPOR. RECIEVER THE LIQUID FREON 12 GOES NOW INTO THE RECEIVER. THE EXCESS HEAT THUS FLOWING OUT OF THE VAPOUR IS BOTH SUPERHEAT AND LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION. PASSES INTO THE CONDENSER. NOW AT HIGH PRESSURE. CONDENSOR THE FREON VAPOR.C. THE EXPANSION VALVE. OR TANK.WORKING OF A. THE LIQUID FREON 12 IS NOW AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE. AND HERE THE UNWANTED HEAT LEAVES THE PRIMARY REFRIGERATING SYSTEM AND IS FINALLY CARRIED AWAY. HERE THE EXCESS HEAT FLOWS BY CONDUCTION THROUGH THE WALLS OF THE TUBING FROM THE HIGHER TEMPERATURE VAPOUR TO THE RELATIVELY LOWER TEMPERATURE WATER.

EXPANSION VALVE  THE LIQUID FREON 12 ENTERS THE EXPANSION VALVE AT HIGH-PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE. AND IS AGAIN ENTERING THE EVAPORATOR.  EVERY PART OF THE CYCLE IS TAKING PLACE SIMULTANEOUSLY AND CONTINUOUSLY THROUGHOUT THE CIRCUIT AS LONG AS REFRIGERATION IS WANTED. THE LIQUID IS SUBJECTED TO A THROTTLING ACTION. 12 . ITS CYCLE COMPLETED. AND IS DISPERSED INTO A FINELY DIVIDED FORM.  IN PASSING THROUGH THE ORIFICE.WORKING OF A.  THE LIQUID OUTLET FROM THIS EXPANSION VALVE IS A SMALL OPENING CALLED THE ‘ORIFICE’.C. THE FREON 12 IS NOW AGAIN A LIQUID AT LOW PRESSURE AND LOW TEMPERATURE.  THIS VALVE REGULATES THE FLOW OF THE REFRIGERANT INTO THE EVAPORATOR. AND REPEATED.

THE UNITS ARE MADE SMALL ENOUGH TO FIT INTO A STANDARD WINDOW FRAME. IT COMPRISES OF : A COMPRESSOR AN EXPANSION VALVE A HOT COIL (ON THE OUTSIDE) A CHILLED COIL (ON THE INSIDE) TWO FANS A CONTROL UNIT THE FANS BLOW AIR OVER THE COILS TO IMPROVE THEIR ABILITY TO DISSIPATE HEAT (TO THE OUTSIDE AIR) AND COLD (TO THE ROOM BEING COOLED).WINDOW AC UNIT A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER UNIT IMPLEMENTS A COMPLETE AIR CONDITIONER IN A SMALL SPACE. 13 .

KNOWN AS THE CONDENSING UNIT.SPLIT AC SPLIT SYSTEM . CONSISTING OF THE EXPANSION VALVE AND THE COLD COIL.CONTAINING AIR HANDLING UNIT INSTALLED WITHIN THE BUILDING. THE SYSTEM USUALLY CONSISTS OF A COMPRESSOR CONTAINING UNIT AND CONDENSER. THIS IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF SYSTEM INSTALLED IN A HOME. INSTALLED OUTSIDE THE BUILDING AND A NON COMPRESSOR . THE HOT SIDE. 14 .A CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER CONSISTING OF TWO OR MORE MAJOR COMPONENTS. IS GENERALLY PLACED INTO A FURNACE OR SOME OTHER AIR HANDLER. LIVES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING. THE AIR HANDLER BLOWS AIR THROUGH THE COIL AND ROUTES THE AIR THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING USING A SERIES OF DUCTS. IN MOST HOME INSTALLATIONS. THE COLD SIDE.

PROVIDING FULLY CONTROLLED HEATING. STORES. AND THE REGULAR HEATING SYSTEM IS USED DURING THE WINTER. AND OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS. SUCH SYSTEMS. SUCH INSTALLATIONS ARE USED FOR COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS. AND VENTILATION THESE ARE EMPLOYED WIDELY IN THEATERS. RESTAURANTS. BEING COMPLEX.C CENTRALIZED AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS. 15 . GENERALLY MUST BE INSTALLED WHEN THE BUILDING IS CONSTRUCTED.CENTRALISED A. COOLING.

COOLING TOWER A COOLING TOWER BLOWS AIR THROUGH A STREAM OF WATER SO THAT SOME OF THE WATER EVAPORATES. GENERALLY. THE COOLING TOWER CONSTANTLY ADDS WATER TO THE SYSTEM TO MAKE UP THE DIFFERENCE 16 . THE EVAPORATION COOLS THE STREAM OF WATER. BECAUSE SOME OF THE WATER IS LOST TO EVAPORATION. AIR BLOWS THROUGH THE MESH AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE WATER FLOW. THE WATER TRICKLES THROUGH A THICK SHEET OF OPEN PLASTIC MESH.

HEAT FROM SUN WILL BE ABSORBED BY THE WALLS AND ROOFS AND LATER ON TRANSFERRED TO THE ROOM BY CONDUCTION.LOAD DUE TO SOLAR RADIATION (SOLAR LOAD) IS DIVIDED INTO TWO FORMS: . THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS USED HAVE TO CARRY OUT TWO TYPES OF LOADS KNOWN AS: SENSIBLE HEAT LOAD LATENT HEAT LOAD THE SOURCES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE SENSIBLE HEAT ARE: . .HEAT TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY BY RADIATIONS THROUGH GLASS OF WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS. . CEILINGS. FLOORS. WINDOWS AND DOORS DUE TO THE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEIR TWO SIDES. INDUSTRIAL AIR CONDITIONING.HEAT LOAD DIFFERENT HEAT SOURCES IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE AIR CONDITIONER DESIGNERS TO KNOW ABOUT THE HEAT SOURCES AND THEIR NATURE BEFORE TAKING THE JOB OF DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS THE DETAILS OF HEAT SOURCES WILL BE USED FOR COMFORT AIR CONDITIONING. 17 . PRODUCT STORAGE SYSTEMS AS WELL AS PRODUCT FREEZING SYSTEMS.HEAT FLOW THROUGH THE EXTERIOR WALLS.

WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS AND THROUGH THEIR FREQUENT OPENINGS.THE LATENT HEAT LOAD FROM THE OCCUPANTS. . HEAT TRANSFERRED THROUGH INTERIOR PARTITIONS OF ROOMS IN THE SAME BUILDING WHICH ARE NOT AIR CONDITIONED. HEAT RECEIVED FROM THE AIR INFILTRATED INSIDE FROM OUTSIDE THROUGH CRACKS IN DOORS. . THE SOURCES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE LATENT HEAT LOAD ARE: .HEAT LOAD HEAT RECEIVED FROM THE OCCUPANTS. MISCELLANEOUS HEAT SOURCES WHICH INCLUDE: HEAT GAIN BY THE DUCTS CARRYING THE CONDITIONED AIR PASSING THROUGH UNCONDITIONED SPACE.THE LATENT HEAT LOAD FROM THE AIR ENTERING INTO AIRCONDITIONED SPACE BY INFILTRATION. 18 . HEAT RECEIVED FROM DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS WHICH ARE COMMONLY USED IN THE AIR CONDITIONED BUILDING. .MOISTURE PASSING DIRECTLY INTO THE AIR CONDITIONED SPACE THROUGH PERMEABLE WALLS WHERE THE WATER VAPOUR PRESSURE IS HIGHER.THE LATENT HEAT LOAD FROM COOKING FOODS AND FROM STORED MATERIALS.

THE AMOUNT OF HEAT REMOVED IN THE FORM OF LATENT HEAT IS KNOWN AS LATENT HEAT LOAD. THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR HEAT DELIVERED THROUGH AN AIR CONDITIONED SPACE THROUGH THE GRASS VARIES FROM HOUR TO HOUR. 19 . THIS FIGURE INCLUDES SOME SENSIBLE HEAT IN ADDITION TO THE LATENT HEAT BECAUSE THE VAPOUR ALWAYS REMAIN IN SUPERHEATED CONDITION IN AIR UNLESS THE AIR IS HOT IN SATURATED CONDITION. SUN LOAD (A) LOAD DUE TO DIRECT RADIATION THROUGH GLASS: THE GLASS HAS HIGH TRANSITIVITY SO THAT THE CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF HEAT IS POURED DIRECTLY INTO THE AIR CONDITIONED SPACE BY THE SUN THROUGH THE GLASS. THE REMOVAL OF 1KG OF WATER VAPOUR IS CONSIDERED EQUIVALENT TO 597 KCAL.HEAT LOAD THE ABOVE LISTED SOURCES ADD THE WATER VAPOUR INTO THE AIR-CONDITIONED SPACE WHICH SHOULD BE REMOVED ABSORBING ITS LATENT HEAT BY THE COOLING APPARATUS. FROM DAY TO DAY AND FROM LATITUDE TO LATITUDE. OF HEAT LOAD ON COOLING COIL APPROXIMATELY.

 Should have a clear height of 3. for single story  1.mt.e.  Should be centrally placed.PROVISION IN BUILDING FOR AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS:-  PLANT ROOM:-  Where possible it should be attached to the building.mt. but for large plants i. more then 500 tones there should be separate plant room.25 ton per 10sq.6m b/w finished floor level and soffit of slab. For multi storied building 20 .  Thumb rule for plant capacity is  1 ton per10sq.

lighting.  There should be no windows to prevent noise transmission.mt of carpet area to be air conditioned.1300kg/cu.  Flooring should be strong enough to bear a load of approx. +@27sq.  Ramps should be provided for easy transportation of equipments.  Minimum area of plant room is 10sq. Area of plant room:-20sq.mt. and drainage facilities.  There should be adequate ventilation.mt.mt.mt 21 . For 100sq.

S.NO.) TYPE 1 1*10 TONNES 10 Packed 2 2*20 “ 20 Reciprocating 3 2*50 “ 45 “ 4 2*100 “ 70 “ 5 2*120 “ 80 “ 6 3*120 “ 110 “ 7 2*200 “ 100 Centrifugal 8 1*500 “ 130 “ 9 2*500 “ 250 “ 22 .MT. CAPACITY SIZE OF PLANT ROOM (SQ.

 Height shall be 3mt.AIR HANDLING UNITS: Minimum size 4.per ton.mt. 23 .mt. for 100sq.mt.  Fresh air opening should be provided at .5sq. of carpet area to be air conditioned.3sq.

Usually. FILTER racks or chambers and sound controllers. Sometimes AHU discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served. and airconditioning (HVAC) system. heating and/or cooling elements. an air handler is a large metal box containing a BLOWER. or air handling unit and often abbreviated to AHU. is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating. Air handlers usually connect to duct that distributes the conditioned air through the building. without ductwork 24 .AIR HANDLING UNIT  An air handler. ventilating. and returns it to the AHU.

1 .Mixed (recirculated + outside) air duct 25 .Fan compartment 4 .Filter compartment 6 .Supply duct 2 .Heating and/or cooling coil 5 .

VIEW OF AHU 26 .

mt.to be conditioned 3720-5580sq. per 100sq. per 100sq. 18sq.mt.mt.Care should be taken that adequate space is provided around cooling tower /pond for free flow of air.mt.to be conditioned NOTE: .mt.CONDITIONED AREA COOLING POND AREA Upto 1860sq. 15sq.to be conditioned 5580sq.mt.mt. 27 . 13sq.mt.to be conditioned 1860-3720sq. per 100sq.mt.mt. per 100sq. and above 11sq.mt.mt.

AREA TO BE CONDITIONED 90liters per hour 2. Induced 185liters per hour 28 . WATER LOSS DUE TO EVAPORATION AND DRIFT ARE:S. MAKE UP WATER TANK: Due to water evaporation and drift there is certain amount of loss of water in cooling tower or pond.  To make up this loss make up water tank are provided.4.NO. Natural MAKE UP WATER REQ. Forced 65 liters per hour 3.MT. TYPE OF COOLING TOWER 1.FOR 100SQ.

VERTICAL RISERS: . and when complete ducting is done walls can be raised.H.provided in multi storied building through which ducts. done to avoid breakage of slabs.U.  GLAZING:  Double glazing or heat resistant glass should be used. chilled and condenser water pipes are taken vertically up or down .  False ceiling should be provided only after ducts have been erected . 29 . to rooms through corridors.DUCTING: Supply and return air ducts are taken from (air handling units) A.  In air conditioned area it is advisable that walls are erected only up to duct level.  Big glazed opening should be avoided.

The air is therefore brought back to the AHU. using return air ducts. It is desirable wherever possible to pass the supply air duct through the return air plenum. 30 . or the packaged airconditioner. because this works like a heat exchanger. Sometimes a separate system of return air ducts/boxing is employed to carry the return air instead of using the plenum. It is common to route the return air through the gap between the false ceiling and the main ceiling. thereby improving the efficiency of the plant. a space referred to as a 'plenum'. they are usually insulated so that cool air does not pick up heat from the warmer surroundings.RETURN AIR:-  Since a substantial amount of energy goes into cooling the air in the first place it is a practice to recycle the air. Where the supply air ducts do not pass through the plenum.

This air is usually drawn in through a 'damper' which is adjusted to allow the specified volume of air into the building. outside air is sucked into the building near the AHU.  31 .FRESH AIR INTAKE: A certain volume of fresh. This keeps the air pressure within the building a little higher than the outside air pressure. moist or any undesirable external air from infiltrating into the building. This prevents dusty.

THUMB RULE FOR AIR CONDITIONING LOADS: Air conditioning load on basis of floor area of 20sq. per ton of refrigeration.per person  Lighting level 20watts per sq.  External glazing 15% of floor area 32 .mt.  Applicable only for insulated roofs and intermediate floors with  Occupancy of 6sq.mt.mt.

5 percent in excess of the calculated supply air.000 CFM) (4) Duct Air Leakage = 4 percent of item (1)= 24 Cu M/Min (840 CFM) (5) Supply Air Fan Capacity = 612 Cu M/Min (21. (f) Supply Air Fan Capacity: The capacity of the supply air fan shall be calculated per the following example: (1) Calculated Supply Air Volume = 560 Cu M/Min (20. (e) Air leakage: The maximum leakage amount shall not exceed 4 percent of the adjusted supply air.000 CFM) (3) Adjusted Supply Air Volume = 588 Cu M/Min (21.Safety Margin: A safety factor of 5 percent shall be applied to the calculated room air quantity to allow for any future increase in the room internal load.000 CFM) (2) Safety Margin = 5 percent of item (1)= 28 Cu M/Min (1.840 CFM) . (d) The adjusted supply air shall be. thus.

dampers. preheat coil. shall be based on the supply fan capacity A psychrometric chart shall be prepared for each air-handling unit.. louvers. cooling coil. return. reheat coils and air outlets/inlets shall be sized and selected onthe basis of the adjusted supply air volume. . h) Air Distribution: (1) The main supply air ductwork shall be sized to deliver the supply air fan capacity (2) The individual room air distribution system including supply. energy recovery coil (if any). etc. exhaust air ductwork. air terminal units.Equipment Selection: selection of the supply air fan. Make sure heat gains due to the fan motor and duct friction losses are taken into account for sizing cooling coils. filters.

. manifolds and sharp turns. Ductwork shall be short. and explosion proof motor. straight.Ductwork shall be stainless steel welded construction. Fan shall be acid resistant metallic or metallic covered with inorganic (polyurethane) coating. with minimum horizontal runs.

Condensing Units. Air Cooled Condensers (g) Heat Exchangers (h) Cooling Towers (i) Engineering Control Center (j) Expansion Tanks (k) Fans (l) Fan-coil Units. Air Terminal Units (Boxes) (m) Filters for closed loop Water Systems (chilled water and hot water) (n) Finned Tube Radiation (o) Heat Recovery Equipment (p) Humidifiers (q) Pre-filters and after-filters (may be combined with pre-filters) (r) Preheat Coils. Safety Valves (t) Pumps (u) Radiant Panels (v) Room By Room Air Balance (w) Sound Attenuators .EQUIPMENT SCHEDULES (a) Air Conditioning Design Data (Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions for the various occupancies) (b) Air Flow Control Valves (c) Air Flow Measuring Devices (d) Air Handling Equipment (e) Air Separators (f) Chillers. Reheat Coils (s) Pressure Reducing Valves. Cooling Coils.