Compressors

Introduction to Compressors
• A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the
pressure of a air by reducing its volume. Compressors are
work absorbing devices which are used for increasing pressure
of fluid at the expense or work done on fluid.
• The compressors used for compressing air are called air
compressors. Work required for increasing pressure of air is
available from the prime mover driving the compressor.
• Generally, electric motor, internal combustion engine or steam
engine, turbine etc. are used as prime movers. Compressors
are similar to fans and blowers but differ in terms of pressure
ratios. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the
pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a
pipe.

Compressor
• Compressed air is a air which is kept under a
certain pressure, usually greater than that of the
atmosphere.
Compressed air can be used in or for:
• pneumatics, the use of pressurized air to do work.
• Air dusters for cleaning electronic components
that cannot be cleaned with water.
• railway braking systems
• road vehicle braking systems.

Types of compressors

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR .

ROTARY COMPRESSOR .

compressor work on two principles 1)Reduce volume of a constant amount of air 2)Adding more gas/air in a constant amount of volume . centrifugal & axial flow compressor works on second principle it adds more amount of air in a given constant volume thus the pressure increase. positive displacement compressor works on first principle it reduces the volume of air by applying force on it but air amount is constant in every stroke or rotation thus increasing the pressure. .

The mechanical design should be simple .The basic requirement of compressor for aircraft gas turbine application are well known.High efficiency. 1. so as to reduce manufacturing time and cost.Weight must be as low as possible.Discharge direction suitable for multistaging.Minimum length 2. 3.High reliability. The compressor should be designed in such a way to have 1.High pressure ratio per stage. .High air flow capacity per unit frontal area 2. 4. 3. 4.

Axial flow Compressor History • The basic concept of multistage axial flow compressor operation have been known for approximately 100 years being presented to French academic des science in 1853. • Efficiencies for this type of unit were quite low. in some cases with the blade design based on propeller theory. • Beginning of at the turn of 20th century. Because the blading was not designed for the condition of a pressure rise in the direction of flow.Due to lack of sufficient knowledge of fluid mechanics at that time. • The advances in aviation during the period of WW I and rapidly developing background in fluid mechanics and aerodynamics give a new impetus to research on compressors. a number of axial flow compressors were built . . • The efficiency of these units was still low (50-60%).

.Axial flow Compressor History • In 1936 the Royal aircraft establishment in England began the development of axial flow compressors for jet propulsion. • By 1945 . • Aerodynamic theory was developed specifically for the case of a cascade airfoils. compressors of high efficiency could be developed by incorporating aerodynamic principles in design and development.

• Its applications in the industrial gas turbine units the multistage axial compressor is the principle element of all gas-turbine power plants for land and aeronautical application.Geometry and Working principle • The energy level of air or gas flowing through it . • This torque is supplied by an external source – an electric motor or gas turbine. is increased by the action of the rotor blades which exert a torque on the fluid. .

a straight through flow systems and high pressure ratios with relatively high efficiencies. • The main advantage of axial flow compressors are large air handling abilities with a small frontal area . Because axial flow compressor has high efficiency and is capable of producing higher pressure ratio on single shaft.15:1 are obtained and by combining the stages . • The main disadvantages is its complexity and cost.Axial Flow Compressor • An axial flow compressors are given more preferred then the radial flow type in the applications of aircraft and industrial gas turbines . the overall pressure ratios of upto 8:1 or even higher can be achieved. • The stage pressure ratios of about 1. • The axial flow compressors consists of a number of stages where each stage may be considered as a fan. .

• One set of stator blades and one set of rotor blades constitute a stage. • The successive set of blades are reduced in length to compensate for the reduction in volume resulting from the increased pressure. . • The radius of rotor hub and the length of the rotor blades are designed so that there is only a very small tip clearance at the end of the stator and rotor blade. and together constitute stator. • There are number of stages in compressors depending upon the pressure ratio required. • The set of movable blades are fixed to a spindle and the combination constitutes the rotor. • The set of fixed blades are spaced around the inside periphery of an outer stationary casing.Axial flow compressors • An axial flow compressors is composed of an alternating sequence of fixed and movable sets of blades. • The rotor and stator banks are as close as possible for efficient flow.

Axial flow compressors 1. to the air.E is imparted to the air by means of the rotating blades which is converted into a pressure rise.E. Here slight pressure rise also takes place. The rotating guide vanes add K. Usually at entry one more stator is provided to guide the air correctly into the first rotor. 3. 6. 4. The air then directed to second row of moving blades and the process is repeated through the remaining stages of the compressors. The K. The air then is discharged at the proper angle to the first row of stator blades where the pressure is further increased by diffusion. This blades are some times referred as the Inlet Guide Vanes(IGV). The air enters axially in to the inlet guide vanes where it is turned through a certain angle to impinge on the first row of rotating blades with proper angle of attack. 5. . 2. In many compressors there are one to three rows of diffuser or straightener blades installed after the last stage to straighten and slow down the air before it enters into the combustion chamber.

Axial flow compressors .

Axial flow compressors .

Selection of Pressure Ratio per Stage .

. Velocity triangles are typically used to relate the flow properties and blade design parameters in the relative frame (rotating with the moving blades). The velocity triangles for the compressor stage contain. 3. to the properties in the stationary or absolute frame. The flow geometry at the entry and exit of the compressor stage is described by the velocity triangles at these stations . besides peripheral velocity(u) of the rotor blades both the absolute(c) and relative (w)fluid velocity vectors.Stage velocity triangle 1. 2.

Velocity triangle .

β3. Thus the absolute swirl or whirl vectors ct1 and ct2 are the tangential components of absolute velocities c 1 and c2 respectively . . similarly wt1 & wt2 are the tangential components of the relative velocities w1 & w2 respectively. α3 and β1. • If the flow is repeated in another stage then c1 = c3 and α1 = α3 subscripts a and t denote axial and tangential directions respectively.• The air angles of absolute and relative systems are denoted by α1. respectively. β2. α2.

From velocity triangles at the entry: ca1 = c1 cosα1 = w1 cosβ1 ------------------------------------1 ct1 = c1 sinα1 = ca1 tanα1 ------------------------------------2 wt1 = w1 sinβ1 = ca1 tanβ1 ------------------------------------3 u = ct1 + wt1 -----------------------------------4 u = c1 sinα1 + w1 sinβ1 -----------------------------------5 u = ca1 ( tanα1 + tanβ1 ) ------------------------------------6 From velocity triangles at the exit: ca2 = c2 cosα2 = w2 cosβ2 ------------------------------------7 ct2 = c2 sinα2 = ca2 tanα2 ------------------------------------8 wt2 = w2 sinβ2 = ca2 tanβ2 ------------------------------------9 u = ct2 + wt2 ------------------------------------10 u = c2 sinα2 + w2 sinβ2 -----------------------------------11 u = ca2 ( tanα2 + tanβ2 ) ------------------------------------12 .The following trigonometrical relations obtained from velocity triangles.

wt2 -----------------------------------16 ca ( tanα2 .ct1 = wt1 . this is proportional to the torque exerted on the fluid by the rotor.tanα1 ) = ca ( tanβ1 .For steady flow in an axial machine.for constant axial velocity through the stage: ca1 = ca2 = ca3 = ca ------------------------------------13 ca = c1 cosα1 = w1 cosβ1 = c2 cosα2 = w2 cosβ2 ------------------------------------14 Equation 6 &12 u/ ca = 1/Φ = ( tanα1 + tanβ1 ) = ( tanα2 + tanβ2 ) ------15 This relation can also be presented in another form using eqn 4 & 10 ct1 + wt1 = ct2 + wt2 ct2 .tanβ2 )----------17 Equations 16 & 17 give the change in the swirl components across the rotor blade row . .

ct1r1) ω where ω = u1/r1 = u2/r2 Above eqn becomes P = ṁ (ct2u2 .tanα1 ) In terms of β W = uca ( tanβ1 . The compressor work input derived based on the assumption that the axial velocity remains constant throughout the machine. From eqn 15 u = ca( tanα1 + tanβ1 ) = ca( tanα2 + tanβ2 ) Form Euler’s eqn for turbo machinery the power needed by rotor is P = Tω = ṁ (ct2r2 .tanβ2 ) .Work input to the compressor Compressor work input in terms of velocity and blade angles .ct1u1) Dividing above eqn by ṁ we will get workdone or specific power W = u(ct2-ct1) W= u ca( tanα2 .

To achieve this . . the proper care in the design of blade and flow geometries are essential.• According to Euler’s (turbo machinery) energy equation W = ½{(c22 – c12)+(u22 – u12)+(w12 w22)} For axial flow compressors u=u1=u2 the above equation reduced to W = 1/2(c22-c12)+1/2(w12-w22) To obtain higher efficiency the work input should be as minimum as possible .

.98-0.tanβ2 ) This work done factor accounts for the effect of boundary layer and tip clearance. W = Ω uca ( tanβ1 .Work done factor(Ω) • The reduction in work absorbing capacity of the compressor is measured by work done factor(0.85) • It is a measure of the ratio of the actual work absorbing capacity of the stage to its ideal value as calculated from equation.

tanβ2 ) ΔTs = Ω uca ( tanβ1 .h01 CpΔTs = Ω uca ( tanβ1 .• In terms of temperature difference Δhs = h03 .tanβ2 ) Cp .

tanα1 ) = uca ( tanβ1 .Compressor stage efficiency • It is the ratio b/w ideal work input to the actual work input. Wideal = h03’ – h01 = Cp(T03’ – T01 ) Wactual = h03 – h01 = Cp(T03 – T01 ) ɳc = (T03’ – T01 ) (T03 – T01 ) Actual Stage work in terms of velocities and air angles Wactual = h03 – h01 = uca( tanα2 .tanβ2 ) = 1/2(c22-c12)+1/2(w12-w22) .

Rotor enthalpy loss coefficients it is defined as the ratio of the difference between the actual and isentropic enthalpy to the enthalpy equivalent of the inlet relative velocity. Flow coefficients sometimes called as compressor velocity ratio. 3. .Performance coefficients In order to evaluate the performance of the compressor same dimensionless performance coefficients are found useful in various analyses. 1. 2.Flow coefficient it is defined as the ratio of axial velocity to peripheral speed of the blades.Rotor pressure loss coefficient it is defined as the ratio of the pressure loss in the rotor due to relative motion of air to the pressure equivalent of relative inlet velocity.

Loading coefficient it is defined as the actual stagnation enthalpy rise in the stage to enthalpy equivalent of peripheral speed of rotor.Stator/Diffuser pressure loss coefficient it is defined as the ratio of the pressure loss in the diffuser due to flow velocity to the pressure equivalent of actual inlet velocity of the diffuser.4. .Stator/Diffuser enthalpy loss coefficient it is defined as the ratio of the difference between the actual and isentropic enthalpy to the enthalpy equivalent of absolute velocity of flow at diffuser inlet 6. 5.

for an actual compressor stage the degree of reaction is define as (R) actual change of enthalpy in rotor actual change of enthalpy in stage .Degree of reaction • The degree of reaction prescribes the distribution of the stage pressure rise b/w the rotor and the stator blade rows.

High reaction stage: (R>1/2) The static pressure rise in the rotor of a high reaction stage is larger compare to that in the diffuser (ΔP)r > (Δ P)d Since the rotor blade rows have relatively higher efficiencies . (ΔP)r<(Δ P)d at low reaction stage the diffuser blades are burdened by a comparatively larger static pressure rise which is not desirable for obtaining higher efficiencies. Fifty per cent reaction stages: R=1/2 one of the way to reduce the burden of a large pressure rise in a blade row is to divide the stage pressure rise equally between the rotor and diffuser . it is advantageous to have a slightly greater pressure rise in them compared to diffuser. .LOW REACTION STAGE:(R<1/2) A low reaction stage has a lesser pressure rise in its rotor compared to that in the stator.

Flow losses • Aerodynamic losses occurring in the most of the turbo machines arise due to the growth of boundary layer and its separation on the blade and passage surface .Stage loss .Tip clearance loss 3.Profile loss 2. Types of aerodynamic losses 1.

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Pressure ratio vs non-dimensional flow rate .Presssure rise vs flow rate 2.Performance characteristics • The performance characteristics of axial flow compressors or their stages at various speeds can be presented in terms of the plots of the following parameters. 1.

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2. 1.0ff-design operation The performance of a compressor is defined according to its design.Seperation of flow from the blade surfaces called stalling. But in actual practice. the operating point of the compressor deviates from the design. Unstable flow in axial compressors can be due to two reasons.point which is known as off-design operation. .Complete breakdown of steady through flow called surging.

• A decrease in the mass flow rate. • One should note that operating at higher efficiency implies operation closer to surge. • Surge is a reversal of flow and is a complete breakdown of the continuous steady flow through the whole compressor. • Surge has been traditionally defined as the lower limit of stable operation in a compressor. • This reversal of flow occurs because of some kind of aerodynamic instability within the system. • Usually. It results in mechanical damage to the compressor due to the large fluctuations of flow which results in changes in direction of the thrust forces on the rotor creating damage to the blades. and it involves the reversal of flow. an increase in the rotational speed of the blade. a part of the compressor is the cause of the aerodynamic instability. . although it is possible for the system arrangement to be capable of augmenting this instability. or both can cause the compressor to surge.Compressor surge • It is a form of unstable operation and should be avoided.

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Rotating stall and individual blade stall are aerodynamic phenomena. .Compressor Stall There are three distinct stall phenomena. The circumstances under which individual blade stall is established are unknown at present. It appears that the stalling of a blade row generally manifests itself in some type of propagating stall and that individual blade stall is an exception. stall flutter is an aero elastic phenomenon. Individual Blade Stall This type of stall occurs when all the blades around the compressor annulus stall simultaneously without the occurrence of a stall propagation mechanism.

Blade stall causes Karman vortices in the airfoil wake. . and an effective flow blockage or a zone of reduced flow develops. Stall flutter is a major cause of compressor blade failure. Stall flutter is a phenomenon that occurs due to the stalling of the flow around a blade. This stalled blade does not produce a sufficient pressure rise to maintain the flow around it. The number of stall zones and the propagating rates vary considerably . Stall Flutter This phenomenon is caused by self-excitation of the blade and is an aeroelastic phenomenon.Rotating Stall Rotating stall (propagating stall) consists of large stall zones covering several blade passages and propagates in the direction of the rotation and at some fraction of rotor speed. flutter will occur. Whenever the frequency of these vortices coincides with the natural frequency of the airfoil.

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• These forced vibrations may match with the natural frequency of the blades causing resonance and hence failure of the blade. .Effects of stall • This reduces efficiency of the compressor • Forced vibrations in the blades due to passage through stall compartment.

2. Due to the rotation of the impeller at a high speed produces centripetal force which causes the air to move out of the impeller at a high velocity.Centrifugal compressors 1. diffuser and a volute casing. The diffuser blades of the diffuser ring are so shaped that these provide an increased area of passage to the air which is passing outwards due to which the velocity of air leaving the impeller is reduced and its pressure is increased.It consists of a rotating element called impeller .Then the air with high velocity enters into a diffuser ring. 3. .The air enters into the compressor through the suction eye of the impeller.

5. The velocity of air is further reduced due to increased cross sectional area of volute casing causing very small rise in pressure.This type of compressor is a continuous flow machine suitable for large flow rate at moderate pressure. The pressure ratios between 4 to 6 may be obtained in this type of compressor.4.From the casing the compressed air leads to exit pipe and finally comes out of the compressor. Pressure ratio upto 12 can be obtained by multistage centrifugal compressors. 5.The high pressure air then flows to the divergent passage of volute casing. .

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. The main aim of this diffuser is to increase the static pressure by reducing the kinetic energy.Types of diffuser • The diffuser consists of any annular space known as a vaneless diffuser. • The diffuser consists of a set of guide vanes it is known as vanned diffuser .

Pressure rise across compressor 2 P 0 1 Inlet Casing Impeller Channel Diffuser 3 .

no slip condition is assumed.The gas leaves the impeller with a tangential velocity equal to the impeller velocity .Energy loss or gain due to heat transfer to or from the gas is considered very small. E = ct2u2-ct1u1 (or) E = ½{(c22 – c12)+(u22 – u12)+(w12 . therefore the work done by the impeller on unit quantity of air is given by W = E = u22 .Ideal energy transfer Let us first considered the case of an ideal compressor with the following assumptions for radial vaned impeller.The air enters the rotor directly from the atmosphere without tangential component. 3.(ct2=u2) 4.c t1= 0 Applying these assumptions to the Euler's energy equation under ideal conditions becomes.Losses due to friction are negligible 2.w22)} E = u22 This is the maximum energy transfer that is possible. 1.

α2 and β1. Based on the value of β2 the blade shapes are given the name as forward curved blades (β2>90).Backward curved blades(β2<90).Exit velocity triangles The absolute and relative air angles at entry and exit of the impeller are denoted by α1. .Entry velocity triangles 2.Radial blades (β2=90). 1. β2.• Energy transfer equation from thermodynamic analysis W = E = h02 .h01 = Cp(T02 – T01 )= Cp T01(rc(γ-1/γ) -1) u22 = Cp T01(rc(γ-1/γ) -1) Blade shapes and velocity triangles In order to understand the actual energy transfer and flow through compressor we will use two velocity triangles.

Types of impeller blade • The blades of the compressor or either forward curved or backward curved or radial. whereas the modern centrifugal compressors use mostly radial blades. . Backward curved blades were used in the older compressors.

u1 = u2 = .•• Since the change in radius between the entry and exit of the   impeller is large the impeller velocities at these stations are different.

ct2 if the value of slip factor is 1 then the slip velocity is zero(no slip condition) .Slip factor It is the ratio b/w actual and ideal values of the whirl component at the exit of the impeller. μ = ct2 ct2’ Slip velocity Cs = ct2’ .

04 Total head temperature rise across the compressor or temperature rise across the impeller ΔTc = T02 .in order to take this into account power input factor is introduced. so the actual energy transfer becomes.T01 = Pif μ u22 Cp .because some energy is lost in friction b/w the casing and the air carried round by vanes and in disc friction. E =Pif μ u22 Pif value lies b/w 1.035-1.Performance parameters Power input factor In practice the actual energy transfer to the air from the impeller is lower than the ideal energy transfer .

Pressure coefficient : ψp = Wactual Wisen ψp = Cp T01(rc(γ-1/γ) -1) Cp T01(rcm(γ-1/γ) -1) ψp = Cp T01(rc(γ-1/γ) -1) u22 .

Compressor efficiency : It is the ratio b/w ideal enthalpy difference to the actual enthalpy difference. ɳc = ɳc = (T02’ – T01 ) = (T02 – T01 ) ψp Pif μ Cp T01(rc(γ-1/γ) -1) Cp (T02 – T01 ) .

Combustion chambers .

rocket motor. gas turbine engines . wood burning . • It is because in this process the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to heat energy which later converted into work by the turbine.it is basically a chemical process in which is fuel is burnt in presence of oxidizer. reciprocating engines.Combustion • The combustion process is of critical importance in a gas turbine cycle. cigarette burning . • The overall chemical process must be exothermic in nature . • Commonly encountered combustion devices in our life are candle flames . . which liberates enough heat to sustain combustion process itself. • Therefore losses incurred in the combustion process will have direct effect on the thermal efficiency of the cycle. • Process of establishing self sustained fire using fuel and oxidizer of course in a controlled manner. lightening of matchsticks .

fluid mechanics .Combustion • Combustion can be defined as a complex sequence of chemical reactions b/w fuel and oxidizer accompanied by liberation of heat and light. ignition energy . . • Besides this sufficient amount of ignition energy is required to initiate the process of combustion. • In order to study combustion phenomenon it is important to considered several disciplines such as thermodynamics . oxidizer . • Hence the combustion process can be conceived as a triangle involving the fuel. heat and mass transfer and turbulence . chemical kinetics. • It is very important that fuel and oxidizer in right proportion within the flammable range must be mixed properly .

biomass . O = 3.5. coke .8 TYPES OF FUELS AND OXIDIZER i)Gaseous Fuels – LPG.What is fuel and oxidizer • Chemically we can define oxidizer as one which accepts the electrons . which dictates whether an element can be classified as fuel or an oxidizer. coal . Kerosene . Examples F = 4 . Acetylene(Oxidizerair/O2) ii)Liquid fuels –Gasoline .special fuels Nitrocellulose(oxidizer –air/O2) . • In contrast the fuel can be defined as one which donate the electrons . animal dung . Natural gas . • This property of elements ability to accept or donate electrons is known as electronegativity. HSD. Alcohols(oxidizer – air/liquid O2) iii)Solid fuels. K = 0. biogas.wood .

physical aspects are concerned with particle size . injection mixing and evaporation. • Chemical aspect concerned with rate of reaction. through chain reactions of molecules . 3. hydroxylated compound burns to CO. . atoms and radical.Hydroxylation : which states that there is an initial uniting of oxygen with the hydrocarbon to form a hydroxylated compound.Carbon preferential burning: which states that carbon in the hydrocarbon fuels burns before the hydrogen. • The are three recognized postulations as to the combustion mechanism 1. 2.CO2 and H20.COMBUSTION THEORY APPLIED TO GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR • In any combustion process obtaining complete reaction between fuel and air has a chemical aspect and a physical aspect.Hydrogen preferential burning: which states that hydrogen hydrocarbon fuels burns before the carbon.

• Since the temperature is a function of the molecular activity raising the temperature increases the probability and intensity of collision of high velocity molecules. • The collision must have a sufficiently high energy level so that the molecules are broken down into atoms and radicals.• The modern theory is based on the statistics of probability as well as kinetics. • It is known from kinetic theory of gases that the individual molecules are in motion at some average velocity but with a wide difference between the velocities of the slowest and fastest molecules. • For the combustion reaction to take place the process requires the collision of molecules of fuel and oxygen. Therefore will be an increase in the intensity of combustion. .

.Factors affecting combustion chamber design • The temperature level of the gases after the combustion must be comparatively low to suit the highly stressed turbine blade materials • At the exit of The combustion chamber the temperature distribution must be of known form if a high turbine performance is to be realized and the blades are not to suffer from local over heating. the air fuel ratio might be vary from 60:1 to 120:1 for a simple gas turbine engines. and stable operation is required over a wide range of air-fuel ratio from full load to idling conditions . • Combustion must be maintained in a stream of air moving with a high velocity in the region of 30-60m/s .

… • The formation of carbon deposits must be avoided . aircraft engine combustion chambers are normally constructed of light gauge heat resisting alloy sheet (approx. . 0.8mm thick) but are only expected to have a life of some 10000 hours. small particles carried into turbines along with the high velocity gas stream can erode the blades. • In aircraft gas turbines combustion must be stable over a wide range of chamber pressure because this parameter changes with altitude and forward speed.Cont.

. • Carbon deposits must not be formed under any expected condition of operation.Requirements of the combustion chamber • Complete combustion of the fuel must be achieved . • Ignition must be reliable and accomplished with easy over wide range of atmospheric conditions . • Temperature and velocity distribution at the turbine inlet must be controlled . • The total pressure loss must be minimum. • The volume and weight of the combustor must be kept within the reasonable limits.

Process of combustion The process of combustion in a gas turbine combustion involves the following 1. 5. . The intimate mixing of molecules of these hydrocarbons with oxygen molecules. 4. Vaporization of the droplets. The breaking down of heavy hydrocarbons into lighter fractions. 2. 3. The chemical reactions themselves. The mixing of a fine spray of fuel droplets with air.

2. sufficient turbulence must be prompted so that the hot and cold streams are thoroughly mixed to give the desired outlet temperature distribution . 3.Three stages of combustion chamber 1. with no heat streaks which would damage the turbine blades. for high combustion efficiency this air must be injected carefully at the right points to avoid chilling the flame locally and drastically reducing the reaction rate . .In the tertiary or dilution zone the remaining air is mixed with the products of combustion to cool them down to the temperature required at the inlet to the turbine .About 15-20 per cent of the air is introduced around the jet of fuel in the primary zone to provide the necessary high temperature for rapid combustion.Some 30 per cent of the total air is then introduced through holes in the flame tube in the secondary zone to complete the combustion.

Cutout view of a can type combustion chamber .

which requires high combustion intensity (heat release rate per unit volume per unit time).Combustion intensity • In aircraft gas turbine engines the air flow through the engine is at high average speed (100 m/s). .

….hr(72 x 102 to 103kWatts/m3) . The combustion intensities of some heat engine combustion processes are compared: • Boiler furnaces-----4x105to106 kJ/m3.Cont.hr (7 –35 x 102 to 103kWatts/m3) • Jet engine-----75-150x105 to 106kJ/m3.hr (1x102 to 103kWatts/m3) • Piston engine -----25–125x105 to 106kJ/m3.hr (21–42 x102 to 103kWatts/m3) • Rocket engine -----260 x105 to106kJ/m3.

• That means even if its inlet conditions are variable it is expected to deliver comparatively steady and uniform flow to the turbine.…. . • On the other hand. combustion chamber is expected to be a stable source of hot gas. • Hence. the outlet condition is governed by turbine design operating limits and is generally required to be uniform and stable.Cont. • This may keep varying with varying flight regimes. • The condition at the burner inlet is determined by the outlet operating conditions of the compressor.

Types of combustion chamber • Can type • Annular type • Can annular type .

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Can type .

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Cannular Type .

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Annular type

• The flame moves in the direction of the air flow inside the
combustion chamber at a characteristic speed known as flame
speed. The flame is sustained in a flame zone at the end of
which most of fuel is burned. Outside the flame zone the
combusted gas moves towards the combustor exit.
• The process of evaporation of droplets and mixing of fuel and
air can occur partly aided by local turbulent vortices artificially
created around the spray zone, and partly by diffusion of liquid
vapour into air.
• At the point of ignition all the droplets may not have been
evaporated and mixed -hence some of them may burn as liquid
droplets in a surrounding air.

Injection and Evaporation

Flame
Front

Mixing of Secondary air

Delivery of
Uniform gas
flow

Combustion efficiency –it is the ratio between actual total head temperature rise to the theoretical total head temperature rise.Pressure loss a) pressure drop due to friction b) acceleration due to heat addition 2.Combustion intensity –heat release rate per unit volume per unit time . 3. .Factors affecting Combustion chamber Performance 1.

3. atomize the fuel.Ignition4.CO.Pollution-unburnt hydrocarbons.Flame tube cooling 2. oxides of sulphar .Fuel injection-meter the fuel flow .NOx.Practical problems 1.Use of cheap fuels 5.