Introduction to Compressors
• A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a air by reducing its volume. Compressors are work absorbing devices which are used for increasing pressure of fluid at the expense or work done on fluid.
• The compressors used for compressing air are called air compressors. Work required for increasing pressure of air is available from the prime mover driving the compressor.
• Generally, electric motor, internal combustion engine or steam engine, turbine etc. are used as prime movers. Compressors are similar to fans and blowers but differ in terms of pressure ratios. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe.
Compressor
• Compressed air is a
air which is kept under a
certain pressure, usually greater than that of the atmosphere.
Compressed air can be used in or for:
• pneumatics, the use of pressurized air to do work. • Air dusters for cleaning electronic components that cannot be cleaned with water. • railway braking systems • road vehicle braking systems.
compressor work on two principles
1)Reduce volume of a constant amount of air 2)Adding more gas/air in a constant amount of volume .
positive displacement compressor works on first principle it reduces the volume of air by applying force on it but air amount is constant in every stroke or rotation thus increasing the pressure.
centrifugal & axial flow compressor works on second principle it adds more amount of air in a given constant volume thus the pressure increase.
The basic requirement of compressor for aircraft gas turbine application are well known. 1.High air flow capacity per unit frontal area 2.High pressure ratio per stage. 3.High efficiency. 4.Discharge direction suitable for multistaging.
The compressor should be designed in such a way to have
1.Minimum length 2.Weight must be as low as possible.
3.The mechanical design should be simple , so as to reduce manufacturing time and cost.
4.High reliability.
Axial flow Compressor History
• The basic concept of multistage axial flow compressor operation have been known for approximately 100 years being presented to French academic des science in 1853.
• Efficiencies for this type of unit were quite low. Because the blading was not designed for the condition of a pressure rise in the direction of flow.
• Beginning of at the turn of 20 th century, a number of axial flow compressors were built , in some cases with the blade design based on propeller theory.
• The efficiency of these units was still low (5060%).Due to lack of sufficient knowledge of fluid mechanics at that time.
• The advances in aviation during the period of WW I and rapidly developing background in fluid mechanics and aerodynamics give a new impetus to research on compressors.
Axial flow Compressor History
•

In 1936 the Royal aircraft establishment in England began the development of axial flow compressors for jet propulsion.

•

Aerodynamic theory was developed specifically for the case of a cascade airfoils.

•

By 1945 , compressors of high efficiency could be developed by incorporating aerodynamic principles in design and development.

Geometry and Working principle
• The energy level of air or gas flowing through it , is increased by the action of the rotor blades which exert a torque on the fluid.
• This torque is supplied by an external source – an electric motor or gas turbine.
• Its applications in the industrial gas turbine units the multistage axial compressor is the principle element of all gasturbine power plants for land and aeronautical application.
Selection of Pressure Ratio per Stage
Stage velocity triangle
1. The flow geometry at the entry and exit of the compressor stage is described by the velocity triangles at these stations .
2. The velocity triangles for the compressor stage contain, besides peripheral velocity(u) of the rotor blades both the absolute(c) and relative (w)fluid velocity vectors.
3. Velocity triangles are typically used to relate the flow properties and blade design parameters in the relative frame (rotating with the moving blades), to the properties in the stationary or absolute frame.
• The air angles of absolute and relative systems are
denoted by α _{1} , α _{2} , α _{3} and
β _{1} , β _{2} , β _{3} , respectively.
• If the flow is repeated in another stage then c _{1} = c _{3} and α _{1} = α _{3} subscripts a and t denote axial and tangential directions respectively.
Thus the absolute swirl or whirl vectors ct _{1} and ct _{2} are the tangential components of absolute velocities c _{1} and c _{2} respectively .
similarly wt _{1} & wt _{2} are the tangential components of the relative velocities w _{1} & w _{2} respectively.
The following trigonometrical relations obtained from velocity triangles. From velocity triangles at the entry:

^{c} a1 ^{=} ^{c} 1 ^{c}^{o}^{s}^{α} 1 ^{=} ^{w} 1 ^{c}^{o}^{s}^{β} 1 1

^{c} t1 ^{=} ^{c} 1 ^{s}^{i}^{n}^{α} 1 ^{=} ^{c} a1 ^{t}^{a}^{n}^{α} 1 2
^{w} t1 ^{=} ^{w} 1 ^{s}^{i}^{n}^{β} 1
^{=} ^{c} a1 ^{t}^{a}^{n}^{β} 1 3
^{u} ^{=} ^{c} t1 ^{+} ^{w} t1
4
u
= c 1 sinα 1 + w 1 sinβ 1
^{u} ^{=} ^{c} a1 ^{(} ^{t}^{a}^{n}^{α} 1
^{+}
^{t}^{a}^{n}^{β} _{1}
5
^{)} 6
From velocity triangles at the exit:

^{c} a2 ^{=} ^{c} 2 ^{c}^{o}^{s}^{α} 2 ^{=} ^{w} 2 ^{c}^{o}^{s}^{β} 2 7

c t2 = c 2 sinα 2
^{w} t2 ^{=} ^{w} 2 ^{s}^{i}^{n}^{β} 2
= c a2 tanα 2 8 ^{=} ^{c} a2 ^{t}^{a}^{n}^{β} 2 9
u = c t2 + w t2 10
^{u}
^{=} ^{c} 2 ^{s}^{i}^{n}^{α} 2 ^{+} ^{w} 2 ^{s}^{i}^{n}^{β} 2 11
u = c a2 ( tanα 2
+
tanβ _{2}
) 12
for constant axial velocity through the stage:
^{c}
c
^{=} ^{c} a2 ^{=} ^{c} a3 ^{=} ^{c} a
13
= c _{1} cosα _{1} = w _{1} cosβ _{1}
= c 2
cosα 2 = w 2 cosβ 2
14
Equation 6 &12
u/ c _{a}
= 1/Φ = ( tanα _{1}
+
tanβ _{1} ) = ( tanα _{2}
+
tanβ _{2}
) _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{1}_{5}
This relation can also be presented in another form using eqn 4 & 10
^{c} t1 ^{+}


^{=} ^{c} t2 ^{+} ^{w} t2

c t2 


= w t1  w t2

16

c _{a} ( tanα _{2}  tanα _{1} ) = c _{a} ( tanβ _{1}
 tanβ _{2} )17
Equations 16 & 17 give the change in the swirl components across the rotor blade row .For steady flow in an axial machine, this is proportional to the torque exerted on the fluid by the rotor.
Work input to the compressor
Compressor work input in terms of velocity and blade angles . The compressor work input derived based on the assumption that the axial velocity remains constant throughout the machine.
From eqn 15 u = c _{a} ( tanα _{1}
+
tanβ _{1} ) = c _{a} ( tanα _{2}
+
tanβ _{2} )
Form Euler’s eqn for turbo machinery the power needed by rotor is
P = Tω = ṁ (c _{t}_{2} r _{2}  c _{t}_{1} r _{1} ) ω
where ω = u _{1} /r _{1} = u _{2} /r _{2}
Above eqn becomes P = ṁ (c _{t}_{2} u _{2}  c _{t}_{1} u _{1} ) Dividing above eqn by ṁ we will get workdone or specific power W = u(ct _{2} ct _{1} ) W= u c _{a} ( tanα _{2}  tanα _{1} ) In terms of β W = uc _{a} ( tanβ _{1}  tanβ _{2} )
• According to Euler’s (turbo machinery) energy equation
W = w _{2} ^{2} )}
½{(c _{2} ^{2} – c _{1} ^{2} )+(u _{2} ^{2} – u _{1} ^{2} )+(w _{1} ^{2} 
For axial flow compressors u=u _{1} =u _{2} the above equation reduced to W = 1/2(c _{2} ^{2} c _{1} ^{2} )+1/2(w _{1} ^{2} w _{2} ^{2} )
To obtain higher efficiency the work input should be as minimum as possible . To achieve this , the proper care in the design of blade and flow geometries are essential.
Work done factor(Ω)
• The reduction in work absorbing capacity of the compressor is measured by work done factor(0.980.85)
•
It is a measure of the ratio of the actual work absorbing capacity of the stage to its ideal value as calculated from equation.
W = Ω uc _{a} ( tanβ _{1}
 tanβ _{2} )
This work done factor accounts for the effect of boundary layer and tip clearance.
• In terms of temperature difference
Δhs = h _{0}_{3}  h _{0}_{1} CpΔTs = Ω uc _{a} ( tanβ _{1} ΔTs = Ω uc _{a} ( tanβ _{1} Cp
 tanβ _{2} )
 tanβ _{2} )
Compressor stage efficiency
•
It is the ratio b/w ideal work input to the actual work input.
^{W} ideal ^{=} ^{h} 03’ ^{–} ^{h} 01
= Cp(T _{0}_{3}_{’} – T _{0}_{1} )
^{W} actual ^{=} ^{h} 03 ^{–} ^{h} 01
= Cp(T _{0}_{3} – T _{0}_{1} ) ɳ _{c} = (T _{0}_{3}_{’} – T _{0}_{1} )
(T _{0}_{3} – T _{0}_{1} ) Actual Stage work in terms of velocities and air angles
W _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l}
= h _{0}_{3} – h _{0}_{1} = uc _{a} ( tanα _{2}  tanα _{1} ) =
uc _{a} ( tanβ _{1}
 tanβ _{2} )
= 1/2(c _{2} 2 c _{1} 2 )+1/2(w _{1} 2 w _{2} 2 )
Performance coefficients
In order to evaluate the performance of the compressor same dimensionless performance coefficients are found useful in various analyses.
1.Flow coefficient
it is defined as the ratio of axial velocity to peripheral speed of the blades. Flow coefficients sometimes called as compressor velocity ratio.
2.Rotor pressure loss coefficient
it is defined as the ratio of the pressure loss in the rotor due to relative motion of air to the pressure equivalent of relative inlet velocity.
3.Rotor enthalpy loss coefficients
it is defined as the ratio of the difference between the actual and isentropic enthalpy to the enthalpy equivalent of the inlet relative velocity.
4.Stator/Diffuser pressure loss coefficient
it is defined as the ratio of the pressure loss in the diffuser due to flow velocity to the pressure equivalent of actual inlet velocity of the diffuser.
5.Stator/Diffuser enthalpy loss coefficient
it is defined as the ratio of the difference between the actual and isentropic enthalpy to the enthalpy equivalent of absolute velocity of flow at diffuser inlet
6.Loading coefficient
it is defined as the actual stagnation enthalpy rise in the stage to enthalpy equivalent of peripheral speed of rotor.
• The degree of reaction prescribes the distribution of the stage pressure rise b/w the rotor and the stator blade rows.
for an actual compressor stage the degree of reaction is define as (R)
actual change of enthalpy in
rotor
actual change of enthalpy in
stage
LOW REACTION STAGE:(R<1/2)
A low reaction stage has a lesser pressure rise in its rotor compared to that in the stator.
(ΔP) _{r} <(Δ P) _{d}
at low reaction stage the diffuser blades are burdened by a comparatively larger static pressure rise which is not desirable for obtaining higher efficiencies.
Fifty per cent reaction stages: R=1/2
one of the way to reduce the burden of a large pressure rise in a blade row is to divide the stage pressure rise equally between the rotor and diffuser .
High reaction stage: (R>1/2)
The static pressure rise in the rotor of a high reaction stage is larger compare to that in the diffuser
(ΔP) _{r} > (Δ P) _{d}
Since the rotor blade rows have relatively higher efficiencies , it is advantageous to have a slightly greater pressure rise in them compared to diffuser.
Flow losses
•
Aerodynamic losses occurring in the most of the turbo machines arise due to the growth of boundary layer and its separation on the blade and passage surface .
Types of aerodynamic losses 1.Profile loss 2.Tip clearance loss 3.Stage loss
Performance characteristics
• The performance characteristics of axial flow compressors or their stages at various speeds can be presented in terms of the plots of the following parameters.
1.Presssure rise vs flow rate 2.Pressure ratio vs nondimensional flow rate
0ffdesign operation
The performance of a compressor is defined according to its design. But in actual practice, the operating point of the compressor deviates from the design point which is known as offdesign operation.
Unstable flow in axial compressors can be due to two reasons. 1.Seperation of flow from the blade surfaces called stalling. 2.Complete breakdown of steady through flow called surging.
There are three distinct stall phenomena. Rotating stall and individual blade stall are aerodynamic phenomena; stall flutter is an aero elastic phenomenon.
Individual Blade Stall
This type of stall occurs when all the blades around the compressor annulus stall simultaneously without the occurrence
of a stall propagation mechanism.
The circumstances under which individual blade stall is established are unknown at present.
It appears that the stalling of a blade row generally manifests itself in some type of propagating stall and that individual blade stall is an exception.
Rotating Stall
Rotating stall (propagating stall) consists of large stall zones covering several blade passages and propagates in the direction of the rotation and at some fraction of rotor speed. The number of stall zones and the propagating rates vary considerably .
This stalled blade does not produce a sufficient pressure rise to maintain the flow around it, and an effective flow blockage or a zone of reduced flow develops.
Stall Flutter
This phenomenon is caused by selfexcitation of the blade and is an aero elastic phenomenon. Stall flutter is a phenomenon that occurs due to the stalling of the flow around a blade.
Blade stall causes Karman vortices in the airfoil wake. Whenever the frequency of these vortices coincides with the natural frequency of the airfoil, flutter will occur. Stall flutter is a major cause of compressor blade failure.
Effects of stall
• This reduces efficiency of the compressor
• Forced vibrations in the blades due to passage through stall compartment.
• These forced vibrations may match with the natural frequency of the blades causing resonance and hence failure of the blade.
Centrifugal compressors
1.It consists of a rotating element called impeller , diffuser and a volute casing.
2.The air enters into the compressor through the suction eye of the impeller. Due to the rotation of the impeller at a high speed produces centripetal force which causes the air to move out of the impeller at a high velocity.
3.Then the air with high velocity enters into a diffuser ring. The diffuser blades of the diffuser ring are so shaped that these provide an increased area of passage to the air which is passing outwards due to which the velocity of air leaving the impeller is reduced and its pressure is increased.
4.The high pressure air then flows to the divergent passage of volute casing. The velocity of air is further reduced due to increased cross sectional area of volute casing causing very small rise in pressure.
5.From the casing the compressed air leads to exit pipe and finally comes out of the compressor.
5.This type of compressor is a continuous flow machine suitable for large flow rate at moderate pressure. The pressure ratios between 4 to 6 may be obtained in this type of compressor. Pressure ratio upto 12 can be obtained by multistage centrifugal compressors.
Pressure rise across compressor
3
2
P
0
1
Inlet
Diffuser
Impeller
Casing
Channel
Ideal energy transfer
Let us first considered the case of an ideal compressor with the following assumptions for radial vaned impeller. 1.Losses due to friction are negligible 2.Energy loss or gain due to heat transfer to or from the gas is considered very small. 3.The gas leaves the impeller with a tangential velocity equal to the impeller velocity , no slip condition is assumed.(c _{t}_{2} =u _{2} ) 4.The air enters the rotor directly from the atmosphere without tangential component.c _{t}_{1} = 0 Applying these assumptions to the Euler's energy equation under ideal conditions becomes.
E = u _{2} 2
E = c _{t}_{2} u _{2} c _{t}_{1} u _{1}
(or)
E =
½{(c _{2} 2 – c _{1} 2 )+(u _{2} 2 – u _{1} 2 )+(w _{1} 2  w _{2} 2 )}
This is the maximum energy transfer that is possible. therefore the work done by the impeller on unit quantity of air is given by
W =
E = u _{2} 2
•
Energy transfer equation from thermodynamic analysis W = E = h _{0}_{2}  h _{0}_{1} = C _{p} (T _{0}_{2} – T _{0}_{1} )= C _{p} T _{0}_{1} (r _{c} (γ1/γ) 1) =
C _{p} T _{0}_{1} (r _{c} ^{(}^{γ}^{}^{1}^{/}^{γ}^{)} 1)
Blade shapes and velocity triangles
In order to understand the actual energy transfer and flow through compressor we will use two velocity triangles.
1.Entry velocity triangles 2.Exit velocity triangles
The absolute and relative air angles at entry and exit of the impeller are denoted by α1, α2 and β1, β2.
Based on the value of β2 the blade shapes are given the name as forward curved blades (β2>90),Radial blades (β2=90),Backward curved blades(β2<90).
Types of impeller blade
•
The blades of the compressor or either forward curved or backward curved or radial. Backward curved blades were used in the older compressors, whereas the modern centrifugal compressors use mostly radial blades.
Slip factor
It is the ratio b/w actual and ideal values of the whirl component at the exit of the impeller.
μ =
c _{t}_{2}
’
Slip velocity C _{s} = c _{t}_{2} ’  c _{t}_{2} if the value of slip factor is
1 then the
slip velocity is zero(no slip condition)
Performance parameters
Power input factor
In practice the actual energy transfer to the air from the impeller is lower than the ideal energy transfer ,because some energy is lost in friction b/w the casing and the air carried round by vanes and in disc friction.in order to take this into account power input factor is introduced, so the actual energy transfer becomes.
E =P _{i}_{f} μ u _{2} 2
P _{i}_{f} value lies b/w 1.0351.04
Total head temperature rise across the compressor or temperature rise across the impeller ΔTc = T _{0}_{2}  T _{0}_{1} = P _{i}_{f} μ u _{2} 2
Cp
Compressor efficiency :
It is the ratio b/w ideal enthalpy difference to the actual enthalpy difference.
ɳ _{c}
=
(T _{0}_{2}_{’} – T _{0}_{1} ) (T _{0}_{2} – T _{0}_{1} )
=
C _{p} T _{0}_{1} (r _{c} ^{(}^{γ}^{}^{1}^{/}^{γ}^{)} 1)
C _{p} (T _{0}_{2} – T _{0}_{1} )
ɳ _{c} =
ψ _{p} P if μ
Combustion
• The combustion process is of critical importance in a gas turbine cycle.
• It is because in this process the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to heat energy which later converted into work by the turbine.
• Therefore losses incurred in the combustion process will have direct effect on the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
• Process of establishing self sustained fire using fuel and oxidizer of course in a controlled manner.it is basically a chemical process in which is fuel is burnt in presence of oxidizer.
•
The overall chemical process must be exothermic in nature , which liberates enough heat to sustain combustion process itself.
• Commonly encountered combustion devices in our life are
candle flames , lightening of matchsticks , cigarette burning , wood burning , reciprocating engines, gas turbine engines ,rocket motor.
Combustion
• Combustion can be defined as a complex sequence of chemical reactions b/w fuel and oxidizer accompanied by liberation of heat and light.
• It is very important that fuel and oxidizer in right proportion within the flammable range must be mixed properly .
• Besides this sufficient amount of ignition energy is required to initiate the process of combustion.
• Hence the combustion process can be conceived as a triangle involving the fuel, oxidizer , ignition energy .
• In order to study combustion phenomenon it is important to considered several disciplines such as
thermodynamics , chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics , heat and mass transfer and turbulence .
What is fuel and oxidizer
•

Chemically we can define oxidizer as one which accepts the electrons .

•

In contrast the fuel can be defined as one which donate the electrons .

•

This property of elements ability to accept or donate electrons is known as electronegativity, which dictates whether an element can be classified as fuel or an oxidizer.

Examples F = 4 , O = 3.5, K = 0.8
TYPES OF FUELS AND OXIDIZER
i)Gaseous Fuels – LPG, Natural gas , biogas, Acetylene(Oxidizer
air/O2)
ii)Liquid fuels –Gasoline , HSD, Kerosene , Alcohols(oxidizer – air/liquid O2)
iii)Solid fuels wood , coal , coke ,biomass , animal dung ,special fuels Nitrocellulose(oxidizer –air/O2)
COMBUSTION THEORY APPLIED TO GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR
•

In any combustion process obtaining complete reaction between fuel and air has a chemical aspect and a physical aspect.

•

Chemical aspect concerned with rate of reaction. physical aspects are concerned with particle size , injection mixing and evaporation.

•

The are three recognized postulations as to the combustion mechanism

1.Carbon preferential burning: which states that carbon in the hydrocarbon fuels burns before the hydrogen.
2.Hydrogen preferential burning: which states that hydrogen hydrocarbon fuels burns before the carbon.
3.Hydroxylation : which states that there is an initial uniting of oxygen with the hydrocarbon to form a hydroxylated compound. through chain reactions of molecules , atoms and radical, hydroxylated compound burns to CO,CO2 and H20.
Factors affecting combustion chamber design
•

The temperature level of the gases after the combustion must be comparatively low to suit the highly stressed turbine blade materials

•

At the exit of The combustion chamber the temperature distribution must be of known form if a high turbine performance is to be realized and the blades are not to suffer from local over heating.

•

Combustion must be maintained in a stream of air moving with a high velocity in the region of 3060m/s , and stable operation is required over a wide range of airfuel ratio from full load to idling conditions . the air fuel ratio might be vary from 60:1 to 120:1 for a simple gas turbine engines.

Cont.…
• The formation of carbon deposits must be avoided . small particles carried into turbines along with the high velocity gas stream can erode the blades.
• In aircraft gas turbines combustion must be stable over a wide range of chamber pressure because this parameter changes with altitude and forward speed.
aircraft engine combustion chambers are normally constructed of light gauge heat resisting alloy sheet (approx. 0.8mm thick) but are only expected to have a life of some 10000 hours.
Requirements of the combustion chamber
• Complete combustion of the fuel must be achieved . • The total pressure loss must be minimum. • Carbon deposits must not be formed under any expected condition of operation. • Ignition must be reliable and accomplished with easy over wide range of atmospheric conditions . • Temperature and velocity distribution at the turbine inlet must be controlled .
• The volume and weight of the combustor must be kept within the reasonable limits.
Process of combustion
The process of combustion in a gas turbine combustion involves the following

2. Vaporization of the droplets.

3. The breaking down of heavy hydrocarbons into lighter fractions.

4. The intimate mixing of molecules of these hydrocarbons with oxygen molecules.

5. The chemical reactions themselves.
Three stages of combustion chamber
1.About 1520 per cent of the air is introduced around the jet of fuel in the primary zone to provide the necessary high temperature for rapid combustion.
2.Some 30 per cent of the total air is then introduced through holes in the flame tube in the secondary zone to complete the combustion. for high combustion efficiency this air must be injected carefully at the right points to avoid chilling the flame locally and drastically reducing the reaction rate .
3.In the tertiary or dilution zone the remaining air is mixed with the products of combustion to cool them down to the temperature required at the inlet to the turbine . sufficient turbulence must be prompted so that the hot and cold streams are thoroughly mixed to give the desired outlet temperature distribution , with no heat streaks which would damage the turbine blades.
Cutout view of a can type combustion chamber
Combustion intensity
• In aircraft gas turbine engines the air flow through the engine is at high average speed (100 m/s), which requires high combustion intensity (heat release rate per unit volume per unit time).
Cont. ….
The combustion intensities of some heat engine combustion processes are compared:
• Boiler
furnaces4x10 5 to10 6
10 3 kWatts/m 3 )
kJ/m 3 .hr
(1x10 2 to
• Piston engine 25–125x10 5 to 10 6 kJ/m 3 .hr (7 –35 x 10 2 to 10 3 kWatts/m 3 )
• Jet engine75150x10 5 to 10 6 kJ/m 3 .hr (21–42 x10 2 to 10 3 kWatts/m 3 )
• Rocket engine 260 x10 5 to10 6 kJ/m 3 .hr(72 x 10 2 to 10 3 kWatts/m 3 )
Cont.….
• The condition at the burner inlet is determined by the outlet operating conditions of the compressor.
• This may keep varying with varying flight regimes.
• On the other hand, the outlet condition is governed by turbine design operating limits and is generally required to be uniform and stable.
• Hence, combustion chamber is expected to be a stable source of hot gas.
• That means even if its inlet conditions are variable it is expected to deliver comparatively steady and uniform flow to the turbine.
Types of combustion chamber
• Can type • Annular type • Can annular type
Factors affecting Combustion chamber Performance
1.Pressure loss a) pressure drop due to friction b) acceleration due to heat addition
2.Combustion intensity –heat release rate per unit volume per unit time .
3.Combustion efficiency –it is the ratio between actual total head temperature rise to the theoretical total head temperature rise.
Practical problems
1.Flame tube cooling 
2.Fuel injectionmeter the fuel flow , atomize the fuel.
3.Ignition
4.Use of cheap fuels
5.Pollutionunburnt
hydrocarbons,CO,NOx, oxides of sulphar