Excretion &

Osmoregulation
CHETAN K.

What is Excretion

Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste from the cells.

Metabolic waste is the unwanted material that is formed
as a result of the bodies metabolism. That is the large
number of chemical reactions that occur in the cells,
tissues and organs.

The waste products of metabolism are frequently toxic
and so must be removed from the body.

Kidney plays important role in excretion process in all
vertebrates.

While skin also helps in excretion of urea, inorganic salts &
water through sweat glands.

Functions of Kidney

Elimination on nitro.
waste

Maintain H2O level
ie.
osmoregulation

Maintain H+ ion
concentration
ie
iso-tonic

Modes of excretion process..

Excretion carried out in different manner in different
animals viz.

Detoxificatation

Ammonia to urea

Ammonia to uric acid

Deamination

Amino acid to ammonia

Ammono
telism

Uricotelis
m

ureotelis
m

Modes of
Excretions

Ammonotelis
m

Phenomenon of formation of excretory product in
form of ammonia is called as ammonotelism.

Organisms which show this activity are
“ammonotelic”.

Ammonia is highly soluble in water & highly toxic in
nature

It can be excreted by simple diffusion so its
concentration in body is kept very low.

As it is harmful for body tissues hence need to
remove as soon as formed.

Ammonotelic
animals

For elimination of ammonia large quantity
of water is required.

Due to this reason ammonotelism is seen
in aquatic animals, bony fish, tadpole larva.

Such animals ammonia diffuse through the
skin and gills and kidney.

Ureotelis
m

NH3

Excretion of nitrogenious waste in form of
urea is uricotelism.

CO2

In this urea formation require expenditure
of energy and formed in liver by ornithine
cycle.
Urea can store in water in its dissolved
form urine

H2O

Ornithine

Citralline

Urea

Modrate amount of water is require ie 50
ml for 1 gm
Animals have this excretory systems are

Turtles

Mammals

NH3
H2O

Arginine

H2O

Uricotelis
m

Elimination of nitrogenous waste in form of uric acid.

Synthesis of uric acid require more energy. It takes
place by inosinic pathway.

Uric acid is eliminated in form of solid pallets or thick
paste which require very less amount of water

10 ml for 1 gm hence useful for desert animals

Animals possess this excretion system are

Snails

Reptiles

Lizards

Human Excretory system

Human Excretory System consist of
following organs

A pair of kidney,

A pair of ureters,

A single unpaired urinary bladder,

A urethra in males / vestibule in
females.

Function of the Excretory System

The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the
human body.

During this process animals get rid of nitrogenous waste products of
metabolism, including ammonia, urea, and uric acid.

Although excretory systems are diverse, nearly all produce urine in a
process that involves several steps.

Kidneys

Organs of
the Excretory
System

Urethras
Urinary bladder
Urethra

Function of the Excretory System
1.

Filtration:

2.

Reabsorption:

3.

The transport epithelium reclaims valuable
substances from the filtrate and returns them.

Secretion:

4.

The excretory tubule collects filtrate from the blood.
Water and solutes are forced by blood pressure
across the selectively permeable membranes of a
cluster of capillaries and into the excretory tubule.

Other substances are extracted from body fluids
and added to the contents of the excretory tube.

Excretion:

The filtrate leaves the system and the body.

Structure of the Excretory
System

This system consists of specialized structures and capillary
networks that assist in the excretory process.

The human excretory system includes the kidney and its
functional unit, the nephron.

The excretory activity of the kidney is changed by specialized
hormones that regulate the amount of absorption within the
nephron.

Kidneys

Bladder

Excretory System
Ureters

Urethra

Meatus

Kidne
y

Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs about five-inches
long, three-inches wide and one-inch thick located in your
back on each side of your spine.

Each kidney is about the size of a fist and weighs from four
to six ounces. They are situated above your waist, with the
left kidney a little higher and a little larger.

The right kidney is a little lower and smaller to make room
for the liver. The lower ribs protect your kidneys.

Inside the kidneys are nephrons. These are tiny units
where the filtering of excess fluids and dissolved particles
occurs. There are between 1 and 1.3 million nephrons in
each kidney.

Blood enters the kidneys through renal arteries and leaves
through renal veins.

Tubes called ureters carry waste products from the kidneys
to the urinary bladder for storage or for release.

During urination, urine is expelled from the urinary bladder

Flow of Urine Flow of Urine
Glomerulus
Renal Tubules

Renal Pelvis
Renal Calices
Ureters

Nephron

Renal artery
Renal vein
Ureter
Renal medulla
Renal capsule
Renal cortex

Kidneys filter about 1700 liters of blood daily in the average
adult.

Parts of the kidneys
• Cortex
-outer protective portion
• Medulla
-inner soft portion
• Hilum
-a depression located in the middle of

Medulla

Hilum

the concave side of the kidney where
blood vessels, nerves, and the ureters
enter and exit the kidneys


The cortex is where the blood is filtered.
The medulla contains the collecting ducts which carry filtrate
(filtered substances) to the pelvis.
The pelvis is a hollow cavity where urine accumulates and drains
into the ureter.

Cortex

Ureters
A tube approximately 6 to 7 inches long
attached to each kidney.
 Made up of three layers of tissue
 Smooth muscle
 Fibrous tissue
 Mucous layer
Peristalsis, a rhythmic contraction of the
ureter smooth muscle which helps to move
the urine into the bladder.

Urinary Bladder
Urinary
bladder

Ureter

Prostate
gland
Urethra

•Hollow, muscular organ that stores
urine
•Sphincter muscles hold the urine in
place
•Holds 300 to 400 milliliters of urine
before emptying
•Walls contain epithelial tissue that
stretch to allow the bladder to hold
twice its capacity

•The trigone is a triangular area at
the base of the bladder where the
ureters enter and the urethra
exits

Urethra
A tube of smooth muscle with a mucous lining that
carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the
body.

Female
Urethra
•Approximately 1.5
inches long
•Opens through the
meatus

Male Urethra
•Approximately 8 inches long
•Passes through three different
regions:
Prostate gland
Membranous portion
Penis

Nephron

The functional units of the kidney are called nephrons.

Nephrons are located in the renal cortex, except for their loops of
Henle, which descend into the renal medulla.

Nephron
Two parts
a.

b.

Renal Corpuscle
1.

Bowman Capsule

2.

Glomerulus
a.

Fenestrae - pore in endothelial walls of glomerulus.

b.

Podocytes - specialized cells.

c.

Filteration slits

Renal Tubule - Series of single layer tubules
1. Proximal Convoluted tubule
2. Loop of Henle
3. Distal Convoluted tubule

Kidneys are made up of nephrons. Blood enters the nephron, where
impurities are filtered out and emptied into the collecting duct. The
purified blood leaves the nephron through the renal vein.

Nephron

The glomerulus is a mass of thin-walled capillaries.

The Bowman’s capsule is a double-walled, cup-shaped structure.

The proximal tubule leads from the Bowman’s capsule to the Loop of
Henle.

The loop of Henle is a long loop which extends into the medulla.

The distal tubule connects the loop of Henle to the collecting duct.

Each nephron has its own blood supply:
 An arteriole
 A venule
 A network of capillaries connecting
them

Each nephron releases fluids to a collecting duct,
which leads to the ureter.

Each kidney contains more than 1 million nephrons.

 Blood Flow through the Kidneys
Blood enters through the renal artery

Each arteriole leads to a nephron

Arterioles
Renal corpuscle

The glomerulus filters fluid from the blood, and is the first
place where urine is formed in the kidneys.
Blood flows through the glomerulus at a constant rate.
Each glomerulus is surrounded by a capsule known as Bowman’s
capsule.
Blood then passes into the renal tubules where some substances
are reabsorbed and the remaining become urine.

The
Kidneys
How is blood filtered?

As blood enters a nephron through the arteriole, impurities are
filtered out and emptied into the collecting duct.

The purified blood exits the nephron through the venule.

 The mechanism of blood purification involves two distinct
processes:
 Filtration
 Reabsorption

Filtration 

Passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove wastes is called
filtration.

The filtration of blood mainly takes place in the glomerulus.

The glomerulus is a small network of capillaries encased in the top of
the nephron by a hollow, cup-shaped structure called Bowman's
capsule.

Fluid from the blood flows into Bowman’s capsule.

The materials filtered from the blood include water, urea, glucose, salts,
amino acids, and some vitamins.

Plasma proteins, cells, and platelets remain in the blood because they are
too large to pass through the capillary walls.

Composition And Formation of
Urine

urine formation take place in three different stages :

Ultrafiltration,

Selective Reabsorption,

Tubular secretion.

Ultrafiltration

Takes place in Malpighian body, its physical process.

Glomerulus & bowman’s capsule act as filtering unit.

10-1000 X more permeable capillaries of glomerulus help to enter water plasma
blood inside the filtering unit

Afferent arteriole diameter is larger than efferent.

Selective Reabsorption

This process stake place in two steps :

Passive transport

Active transport.

Water is reabsorbed by osmosis in PCT, DCT, descending loop of Henle almost
everywhere except acending part of it known as, “Obligatory absorption of water”.

The kidneys maximum capacity for reabsorption of substance is transport renal
threshold.

Eg.

45-95 mg of sugar in 100 ml of blood is normal level, but if it rise above
maximum level ie 160 mg per 100 ml. then glucose appears in urine. This
knows as “Glucosuria”.

 Reabsorption 

Most of the material removed from the blood at Bowman's capsule
makes its way back into the blood.

The process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel is called
reabsorption.

Almost 99% of the water that enters Bowman’s capsule is reabsorbed
into the blood.

When the filtrate drains in the collecting ducts, most water and nutrients
have been reabsorbed into the blood.
Afferent arteriole
Efferent arteriole

Glomerular
Filtration
Bowman’s
capsule

Glomerulus

Remaining material, called urine, is emptied into a collecting duct.

Urine is primarily concentrated in the loop of Henle.

The loop of Henle is a section of the nephron tubule in which water is
conserved and the volume of urine minimized.

As the kidney works, purified blood is returned to circulation while urine
is collected in the urinary bladder.

Urine is stored here until it is released from the body through a tube
called the urethra.

Tubular secretion

It does not synthesize or add any material in the urine.

Substance which generally secreted are creatinineand potassium and hydrogen
ion.

Secretion of ion in in DCT and collecting tubule is important to regulate the acidity
of blood.

Some abnormal substance in blood are also secreted in the urine.

Anti-biotics like penicillin iodine compound, iodopyrace are secreted in urine

Composition of Urine

Depends on food that individual eat consume on daily basis.

On an average 1.2-1.5 ltr of urine produced per day.

Characteristic yellow colour is due to presence of pigment
“urochrome”.

Contains :

95 % of water

Rest of urea, uric acid, creatinine

Dialysis
 Blood is removed by a tube and
pumped through special tubing
that acts like nephrons.
Blood in tubing flows
through dialysis fluid

Tiny pores in the tubing allow salts and
small molecules to pass through.

Wastes diffuse out of the blood into the
fluid-filled chamber, allowing purified
blood to be returned to the body.

Blood pump
Vein
Artery
Shunt

Used dialysis fluid

Air
detector

Dialysis
machin

Compressed air
Fresh dialysis
fluid