PIPING FUNDAMENTALS PIPE: • • It is a Tubular item made of metal. PIPING: • • piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. . meant for conveying Liquid. aluminum. plastic. steel. glass. copper. plastic. glass etc. and concrete. fiberglass. And it’s engineering plays a major part in overall engineering of a Plant. Industrial process piping can be manufactured from wood. Gas or any thing that flows. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. It is a very important component for any industrial plant.

SELECTION OF PIPING MATERIALS • Materials selection for achievement of metallurgical stability shall be made on the basis of design condition and to resist possible exposures against fire. operating condition. . These are: a) Resistance to stress b) Resistance to wear Design Life. corrosion.Resistance to corrosion etc. • The designer is confronted with the following concerns regarding the material of construction as he begins the design. service etc.

5 Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems ASME B31.1 Power piping (steam piping etc.9 Building services piping ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems (Withdrawn.4) ASME B31.B31 series • • • • • • • • ASME B31.STANDARDS AND CODES ASME . Superseded by B31.3 Process piping ASME B31.) ASME B31.The American Society of Mechanical Engineers .12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines .

Part 5: Inspection and testing EN 13480-6 Metallic industrial piping .ASTM .Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures EN 13480-8 Metallic industrial piping .European metallic industrial piping code • • • • • • • • EN 13480-1 Metallic industrial piping .Part 6: Additional requirements for buried piping PD TR 13480-7 Metallic industrial piping .American Petroleum Institute • API 5L Petroleum and natural gas industries—Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems.Part 4: Fabrication and installation EN 13480-5 Metallic industrial piping .Part 8: Additional requirements for aluminium and aluminium alloy piping .Part 2: Materials EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping . API .American Society for Testing and Materials • ASTM A252 Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipelines.Part 1: General EN 13480-2 Metallic industrial piping .Part 3: Design and calculation EN 13480-4 Metallic industrial piping . EN 13480 .

which is stated as where HS = hoop stress in pipe wall. in. and dO = outside diameter of pipe. psi. in. P = internal pressure of the pipe. ..DESIGN AND CALCULATIONS The basic formula for determining pipe wall thickness is the general hoop stress formula for thin-wall cylinders. psi. ft. t = pipe wall thickness. L = length of pipe.

P = allowable internal pressure in pipe. psi. straight or spiral seam APL 5L.using B31. Tol = manufacturers allowable tolerance. psi.3 is a very stringent code with a high safety margin. in. 10 pipe > 20 in. Wall thickness calculations .. double butt. The B31. in.85 electric resistance weld (ERW). in..0 seamless. . API 5L). 0.3 wall-thickness calculation formula is stated as where t = minimum design wall thickness.60 furnace butt weld].3 Code ANSI/ASME Standard B31. E = longitudinal weld-joint factor [1. te = corrosion allowance.. Y = derating factor (0. in.5 pipe up to 20 in. 0.95 electric fusion weld. S = allowable stress for pipe. OD.OD. tth = thread or groove depth.4 for ferrous materials operating below 900°F). dO = outside diameter of pipe. 0. % (12.

such as pump stations.60 furnace butt weld]. The wall-thickness formula for Standard B31. psi F = derating factor.72 for all locations.4 code is somewhat less stringent than that of Standard B31.3 because of the lower levels of hazard associated with liquid pipelines. 0. ERW.. 0.80 electric fusion (arc) weld and electric fusion weld. P = internal pressure in pipe. double submerged arc weld and flash weld. and tank farms. in. . The code for Standard B31.4 is stated as where t = minimum design wall thickness..Wall thickness calculations . psi. measurement and regulation stations. dO = OD of pipe. in. pigging facilities.0 seamless. 0.using B31. SY = minimum yield stress for pipe.4 Code The ANSI/ASME Standard B31. and E = longitudinal weld-joint factor [1.4 is used often as the standard of design for crude-oil piping systems in facilities.

. a minimum velocity of 3 ft/sec is normally used. A maximum velocity of 15 ft/sec is often used to minimize the possibility of erosion by solids and water hammer caused by quickly closing a valve.Liquid line sizing The liquid velocity can be expressed as where QL = fluid-flow rate. B/D and d = pipe ID. In piping systems where solids might be present or where water could settle out and create corrosion zones in low spots. in.

Gas line sizing The velocity in gas lines should be less than 60 to 80 ft/sec to minimize noise and allow for corrosion inhibition. °R. A lower velocity of 50 ft/sec should be used in the presence of known corrosives such as CO2. T = gas flowing temperature. which minimizes liquid fallout. ft/sec. Gas velocity is expressed in where Vg = gas velocity. MMscf/D. . Qg = gas-flow rate. and d = pipe ID in.psia. The minimum gas velocity should be between 10 and 15 ft/sec. P = flowing pressure. dimensionless. Z = compressibility factor.