MARPOL Annex I

Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
an introduction to
the international
regulations for the
prevention of
pollution by oil
Image courtesy of Dampskibsselskabet NORDEN AS

Tim Wilkins
Regional Manager Asia-Pacific
Environmental Manager

1.
2.

MARPOL
Annex I
i.
ii.

Regulations and Chapters
Fundamentals
1. Operation
2. Construction

1. MARPOL
Torrey Canyon 1967




1959 US built, 60,000 dwt, ,
Li. flagged
Jumboised to 120,000 dwt
Cargo 120,000 ts of BP oil
for Milford Haven
Navigational error caused
grounding ripping open 6
tanks
31,000,000 gallons of oil
leaked
Oil spread along the sea
between England and France

. 1978 The whole cargo spilled out as the breakers spilt the vessel in two. on March 16. France at 10:00 p.m.1.000 tonnes of crude oil ran aground off the coast of Brittany. progressively polluting 360 km of shoreline At the time this was the largest oil spill by tanker ever registered. MARPOL Amoco Cadiz 1978 • • • • 1974 built Amoco Cadiz carrying 227.

1. MARPOL The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) as amended by the 1978 Protocol (MARPOL 73/78) • Just Oil… • 1954 OILPOL Convention – Operational • Discharge zones (50nm and 100ppm) • Reception facilities .

Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships V.1. Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk III. Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil II. Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form IV. Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships VI. MARPOL Not just Oil… MARPOL Annexes I – VI I. Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships .

MARPOL MARPOL Implementation 1967 Torrey Canyon 1973-1978 Amoco Cadiz et al.1983 III – 1992 V – 1988 IV – 2003 VI .2005 . MARPOL ’73 and the Protocol ‘78 MARPOL enters into force October 1983 • • • • – – – – – Annex Annex Annex Annex Annex I and II .1.

2.2. Ship/Tanker design Ship/Tanker operation . Annex I regulations and chapters 39 regulations in 7 chapters to regulate oil pollution from ships (not just tankers): 1.

Annex I regulations and chapters 39 regulations in 7 chapters to regulate oil pollution from ships (not just tankers): Chapte r 1 Regulations 1-5 General: Definitions and applications 2 6-11 Surveys and certification: Flag administration and Port State Control (PSC) 3 12-17 Machinery space: Construction. discharge control and equipment (oil tankers) .2. discharge control and equipment (all ship types) 4 18-36 5 37 Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP) 6 38 Reception facilities 7 39 FPSOs and FSUs Cargo areas: Construction.

Operation Discharge of oil at sea (1): all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied • Machinery space (bilge and sludge) – – All ship types Machinery space • • – – – – Bilge waste: oily water from the bilges Sludge: waste residue from the filtration of fuel oil Ship must be en route Oily mixture must have been processed through the oil filtering equipment Oil content of the mixture does not exceed 15 parts per million (ppm) Oily mixture is not mixed with cargo residues (see later) .2. Annex I fundamentals.

Annex I fundamentals. Operation Discharge of oil at sea (2): all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied • Cargo space (slops) – – – – – Oil tankers Must be more than 50nm from nearest land (also defined) 30 litres per nautical mile Discharged through the Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) Maximum discharge quantity on a ballast voyage should not exceed 1/30.000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part .2.

Operation Discharge of oil at sea (3): all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied Oil discharge monitoring and control systems (tankers) Regulations 31 & 32 Oil filter equipment (all ship types) Regulation 14 • Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) • Oily Water Separators (OWS) Extensive review of requirements underway at IMO .2. Annex I fundamentals.

2. Annex I fundamentals.“A Special Area is a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to oceanographic and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic…special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by [oil] is required. Operation Special Areas (1): • All the previous discharge criteria regulates outside a Special Area • Regulation 1 .” • And as such there shall be NO discharge whatsoever of cargo residues/slops from oil tankers .

2. Operation Special Areas (2): those listed in Annex I: – – – – – – – – – – Baltic Sea Black Sea Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Gulf of Aden Antarctic Gulfs area Northwest European waters Southern South African waters Oman area of the Arabian Sea 1983 1983 not in effect 1983 not in effect 1992 Aug 2008 1999 Aug 2008 not in effect . Annex I fundamentals.

2. repair ports and ports in which ships have oily residues to discharge • Port state obligation • Alleged inadequacies . Annex I fundamentals. Operation Reception facilities: Regulation 38 Oil loading terminals.

Construction Tank (ship) construction: How many hulls… . Annex I fundamentals.2.

000 gross tons and tankers that call at LOOP or Designated Lightering Areas) IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 3/1992. Annex I fundamentals. entry into 7/1993) – – Newbuildings to be double-hulls Single-hulls to be sbt/pl or hbl from 25 years with phase-out at 30 years old or by 2015 .S phase-out from 1995 to 2010 (except for tankers with double bottoms (db) or double sides (ds).2. Construction Tank (ship) construction: Exxon Valdez 1989 OPA 90 – force U. tankers less than 5.

Construction Tank (ship) construction: Erika 1999 force IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 4/2001. Annex I fundamentals. entry into 9/2002) – – Category 1 phase-out up to 2007 Categories 2&3 phase-out at 26 years up to 2015 BUT • Flag state may allow newer single-hulls to continue to 25 years (subject to CAS) HOWEVER • Port state can deny such extended single-hull tankers from entering its ports .2.

000-20. Annex I fundamentals.000/30.000dwt) . Construction Tank (ship) construction: Oil Tanker Categorization Category 1 pre-MARPOL (pre-1982) Category 2 MARPOL (post-1982) Category 3 smaller tankers (5.2.

Annex I fundamentals. Construction Tank (ship) construction: Prestige 2001 EU Regulation 1726/2003 (entry into force 21/10/2003) – – – – Category 1 phase-out up to 2005 Categories 2&3 phase-out up to 2010 No Heavy Grade Oils (HGO) in single-hulls from 21/10/2003 CAS from 2005 for all Categories 2&3 over 15 years old IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 12/2003. entry into force 5/4/2005) – – – – 13G Category 1 phase-out up to 2005 Categories 2&3 phase-out up to 2010 CAS required for Categories 2&3 over 15 years old .2.

Annex I fundamentals.Double hull required from 5/4/05 for Heavy Grade Oil as cargo for tankers 5. Construction Tank (ship) construction: Prestige 2001 BUT • Flag state may extend Categories 2&3 up to 2015 or 25th anniversary (whichever earlier) • Flag state may extend Categories 2&3 with db or ds which may trade up to 25th anniversary of delivery (even past 2015) HOWEVER • Port state may deny entry of either such flag-state-extended tankers • 13H . and for tankers 600-4.000 dwt and above.2.999 dwt (except single-hulls built with db and ds) from anniversary date in 2008 .

2.999 dwt to continue with HGO until 25th anniversary or 2015 whichever is earlier HOWEVER • Port state may deny entry of any of the above mentioned flag-stateextended tankers carrying HGO .000 dwt and above to continue with HGO between 900 and 945 kg/cubic meter until 25th anniversary or 2015 whichever is earlier. Construction Tank (ship) construction: Prestige 2001 BUT • Flag state may allow single-hull 5. Annex I fundamentals.000 dwt and above with db or ds to continue with HGO up to 25th anniversary (even beyond 2015) • Flag state may allow single-hull 5. subject to CAS • Flag state may allow single-hull 600-4.

Annex I fundamentals.2. Construction Tank (ship) construction: .

Construction Tank (ship) construction: . Annex I fundamentals.2.

2. Construction Tank (ship) construction: . Annex I fundamentals.

Construction Tank (ship) construction: . Annex I fundamentals.2.

000 dwt and above) CAS will be performed at intervals of up to 5 years and 6 months • First CAS to be undertaken at first renewal (ie special) survey or intermediate survey after 5/4/05 of every tanker which has reached its fifteenth year • CAS is to be harmonised with ESP .2. Annex I fundamentals. Miscellaneous Other key elements to MARPOL Annex I: • SOPEP – Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan • Certification – International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPPC) • Surveys – – Special Surveys (Enhanced Special Survey) Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) • • CAS (Applies to oil tankers of 5.

Annex I fundamentals.2. Miscellaneous Other key elements to MARPOL Annex I: • Oil Record Book (ORB) – – – • • • • Regulation 17 and Appendix III Part 1: Machinery space operations Part 2: Cargo space operations Crude Oil Washing (COW) Fuel tank protection – all ships 2010 Pump room protection – double bottom in tankers after 1/1/2007 Oil outflow performance in case of accident – collision or grounding .

and contaminated seawater from operational purposes such as produced oil tank cleaning water. production water discharge. Annex I fundamentals. Miscellaneous Other key elements to MARPOL\Annex I: • FPSOs/FSUs a. Conversion of an oil tanker to an FPSO or FSU or vice versa should not be construed as a major conversion as defined in regulation 1(8) There are five categories of discharges that may be associated with the operation of an FPSO or FSU: 1.2. 3. water from ballasting of produced oil tank to carry out inspection by rafting. machinery space drainage. c. FPSOs and FSUs are not oil tankers and are not to be used for the transport of oil except that. offshore processing drainage. 4. produced oil tank hydrostatic testing water. b. 5. displacement water discharge. 2. . with the specific agreement by the flag and relevant coastal States on a voyage basis.

www.com .intertanko.