UNIT VIII

LEADERSHIP

BY-PROF.RASHMI GUPTA

Objectives of the session
y What is leadership? y Qualities of a good leader. y Various leadership styles. y Trait theories. y Behavioral theories. y Contingency theory y Fiedler¶s model of leadership
y Transactional and Transformational Leadership

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What Is Leadership?
Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Management is the process of planning,organizing,coordinating directing and controlling the activities of others.

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Importance of Leadership
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards a common goal/objective Importance of Leadership: y Motivating employees y Creating confidence y Building morale y To introduce change y To represent employees y To exercise coordination

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Leadership Qualities
Personal Traits:
y Confidence y Initiative y Innovation y Communication skills y Intelligence y Decisiveness y Foresight y Responsible y Empathy
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Managerial Traits:
yKnowledge of aspects of

management
yTechnical Knowledge yAdministrative ability

Leadership Styles
y Autocratic:

No communication with sub ordinates, takes decisions and gives orders, workers work under fear and stress, does not entertain questions by followers
y Democratic/participative:

Empathy, respects employees, good listener, delegates authority, believes in participative management, open to suggestions, flexible, attracts loyal sub ordinates
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Leadership Styles
y Laissez-faire:

Passive leader, freedom to subordinates in decision making, limited guidance by the leader, no motivation or encouragement provided, indifference towards responsibilities as a leader
y Functional/Intellectual:

Expert with sound technical knowledge, gets respect from subordinates due to intellect, gives correct guidance to employees, considers problems and judges on merit

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Leadership Styles
y Bureaucratic:

No innovation and flexibility, function strictly within the framework of organisational rules and regulations, mechanical decision making, delays in functions
y Situational:

Adjusts his style according to the situation, studies the situation before adopting the style, which can range from dictatorship to democracy, flexibility, result oriented, combination of many types of leadership
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Trait Theories
Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Leadership Traits: Traits: ‡ Ambition and energy ‡ The desire to lead ‡ Honest and integrity ‡ Self-confidence Self‡ Intelligence ‡ High self-monitoring self‡ Job-relevant Jobknowledge
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Trait Theories
Limitations:
‡ No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. ‡ Traits predict behavior better in ³weak´ than ³strong´ situations. ‡ Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. ‡ Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
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Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing specific behaviors that differentiate leaders from non-leaders.

‡ Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. ‡ Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

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Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
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high

Human Relations

Democratic

Conside ration for behavior Laissez Faire Autocratic

Low Low Initiating Structure behaviour
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High

University of Michigan Studies
Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

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The Managerial Grid
(Blake and Mouton)

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Contingency Theories
Fiedler s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is taskor relationship-oriented.
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Essentials of Relations&Task oriented Leadership style
Relations-oriented
y Good inter personal

Task-oriented
y Emphasis on task

relations. y Sensitive to the needs and feelings of others. y Consultation with subordinates. y Open communication with subordinates.

accomplishment y Use of power. y Task structure. y No consultation with subordinates.

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Fiedler¶s Model: Defining the Situation
Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
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Findings from Fiedler Model

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Hersey and Blanchard¶s Situational Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness.
Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing

Follower readiness: ability and willingness
Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision
High Task and Relationship Orientations BY-PROF.RASHMI GUPTA Directive Supportive Participative Monitoring

Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)
Follower Readiness
Able Unwilling Willing

Supportive Participative Leadership Styles

Monitoring

Unable

Directive

High Task and Relationship Orientations

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Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

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The Path-Goal Theory

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Leader-Participation Model
Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

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Transactional and Transformational Leadership
Transactional Leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational Leaders Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma.
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‡ Contingent Reward ‡ Management by Exception (active) ‡ Management by Exception (passive) ‡ Laissez-Faire

‡ Charisma ‡ Inspiration ‡ Intellectual Stimulation ‡ Individual Consideration

Characteristics of Transactional Leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for
effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.

Management by Exception (active): Watches and
searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.

Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if
standards are not met.

Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making
decisions.

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Characteristics of Transformational Leaders

Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride,
gains respect and trust.

Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols
to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.

Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality,
and careful problem solving.

Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention,
treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

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THANK YOU!!!!!

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