Introduction to MIS

Data vs. Information
Data  raw facts 

no context just numbers and text

Information  data with context  processed data  value-added to data 

summarized organized analyzed 

Data vs. Information 

³given,´ or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture  Represents something in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information 

that have meaning within a context  Data in relationships  Data after manipulation 

Data vs. Information 

Data: 50210 Information: 

5/02/10 The date of your final exam. $52,010 The average starting salary of an accounting major. 52010 Zip code of state.

Data vs. Information

SIRIUS SATELLITE RADIO INC. $7.20 $7.00 $ .80 Stock Price $ . 0 $ .40 $ .20 $ .00 $5.80 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10

6.34 6.45 6.39 6.62 6.57 6.64 6.71 6.82 7.12 7.06

Last 10 Days




Summarizing the data Averaging the data Selecting part of the data Graphing the data Adding context Adding value Information




Information How is the info tied to outcomes? Are there any patterns in the info? What info is relevant to the problem? How does this info effect the system? What is the best way to use the info? How can we add more value to the info? Knowledge 

Information in Context

Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information

Information as A Competitive Weapon
Information technology and quality information are not the goals, but merely to support organizations to reach goals of 

Superior products and services Greater productivity Eventually success  

Data, Information, and Systems 

Information and Managers 

Systems thinking 

a framework for problem solving and decision making.  Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.

Data, Information, and Systems 

What Is a System? 

System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems Open system: System that interfaces with other systems   

Data, Information, and Systems 

Generating Information 

Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output.

Figure 1.1 Input-process-output

Information Systems
Generic Goal:  Transform Data into Information 

At the Core of an Information System is a Database (raw data).

Information Systems 

Why Do People Need Information? 

Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and control 

Data, Information, and Systems 

The Benefits 


When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately 

Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of data

Data Processing 

Recall that a basic system is composed of 5 components 

Input, Output, Processing, Feedback, Control 

Typically processing helps transform data into information. Input
Raw Data Processing Information


The Four Stages of Data Processing    

Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools. Output: Information is displayed or presented. Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.


Summarizing Computing Averages Graphing Creating Charts Visualizing Data

Processing: Great Example 

Navigation System 

Specialized Geographic Information System

Input: Maps, Addresses, Points of Interest, ³Yellow Pages´ Processing: 

Computing Shortest Paths; Finding the Nearest Chinese Restaurant Directions (each turn + a map with arrows) List of nearby Chinese Restaurants (sorted by dist.) 


Analysis ± Navigation System 

Recall that Information Systems have five more specific components: People, Data, Communication Network, Hardware, Software. In a Navigation System« 

what is the Communication Network? what is the Hardware? who are the People?

Course Goal: Help you analyze systems?   

Step 1: Always ask yourself«What is the purpose of the system? Step 2: Identify People, Data, Hardware, Software, Communication Network. Step 3: Identify Input, Output, Processing, Feedback, Control.

Navigation System Feedback 

So what is the feedback in a navigation system? Feedback is information about how the system is performing. 

Feedback can help you identify problems with the system«so you can improve it. 

Feedback helps you determine if the system is achieving its goal. 

In a heating system, the feedback was the actual temperature.

What is an information system?  

An information system is a system that accepts data resources as input, and processes them into information products as output. Includes four component parts  Input  Processes  Output  Feedback

Intro to Information Systems Concepts
Feedback Control (processes)

Raw materials (Inputs)


Products (Output)

Information system model

Components of an Information System
Hardware resources ( Machines and media)

Components of an Information System
‡Data resources
‡Databases ‡Knowledge bases

Components of an Information System
‡ Software resources
‡ Programs ‡ Procedures

Components of an Information System
People Resources (End users and IS specialists)

Data, Information, and Systems

Figure 1.6 Components of an information system

Types of Information Systems

Decision Support Systems Management Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Hardware Software Databases Networks Other related components are used to build INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Payroll System

Inventory System

Marketing System

Customer Service System

Expanding Roles of IS

1. Data Processing: 1950s-1960s 2. Management Reporting: 1960s-1970s 3. Decision support: 1970s-1980s 4. Strategic and End User Support: 1980s-1990s 5. Global Internetworking: 1990s-2000s

Classification of IS
Information Systems

Operations Support System

Management Support System

Transaction processing systems

Process control systems

Office automation systems

Management information systems

Decision support systems

Executive information systems

1. Operations support systems process data generated by business operations Major categories are: i) Transaction processing systems ii) Process control systems iii) Office automation systems 2. Management Support Systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers Major categories are i) Management Information System

ii) Decision Support Systems iii) Executive Information System

1. Operations Support System i) Transaction processing systems Process business exchanges Maintain records about the exchanges Handle routine, yet critical, tasks Perform simple calculations

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

ii) Process control systems monitor and control industrial processes. iii) Office automation systems automate office procedures and enhance office communications and productivity.

2. Management support systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers Major categories are:


Management information systems 

Routine information for routine decisions  Operational efficiency  Use transaction data as main input  Databases integrate MIS in different functional areas

ii) Decision Support System
‡ Interactive support for non-routine decisions or problems

End-users are more involved in creating a DSS than an MIS

iii) Executive information systems provide critical information tailored to the information needs of executives

Other categories
a) Expert systems b) End user computing systems c) Business information systems d) Strategic information systems

Information Systems Development

1. Workforce downsizing 2. Information overload 3. Employee mistrust 4. Difficult to built 5. Security breaches


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Enhanced global competitiveness Capture market opportunities Support corporate strategy Enhance worker productivity Improve quality of goods and services

2.1 Types of Information Systems
Computer-based information systems (CBIS) use computer technology to perform some or all of their tasks and are composed of: 

Hardware Software A Database A Network Procedures People

Information Systems Inside Your Organization

Information Technology Outside Your Organization

Application Programs
An application program is a computer program designed to support a specific task, a business process or another application program.

Breadth of Support of Information Systems 

Functional area information systems Enterprise resource planning systems Transaction processing systems Interorganizational information systems

Information Systems Support for Organization Employees 

Office automation systems Functional area information systems Business intelligence systems Expert Systems Dashboards

Why Study IS? 

Information Systems Careers 

Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Managers and non-managers Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. 

Knowledge Workers 

Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy 

Key to full participation in western society

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