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RECOGNIZING OUR

WOMEN
THEIR WORTH AND
HEALTH
2007

DIABETES

DEFINITION
A condition that occurs when the body either does
not produce enough Insulin or cannot effectively use
the Insulin it produces.
This makes it difficult for the body to convert the
food you eat into energy your cells need to survive
and thrive.
Insulin is hormone that regulates the blood sugar and
is produced by the Pancreas.

RISK FACTORS
A family history of Diabetes
Obesity/ Overweight
Hypertension
Physical Inactivity
Age
Ethnicity

TYPES OF DIABETES
Type 1 Diabetes
Usually occur in children or young adults
The Pancreas makes little or no Insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes
The pancreas makes insulin but not enough
Common in older adults but young people can
also get it.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Feeling tired and weak all the time


Always thirsty
Need to urinate often
Sudden weight loss
Increased appetite
Blurred vision
Numbness or tingling in feet and /or hands
Wounds that wont heal

COMPLICATIONS
Damage to heart and blood vessels
Eye problems
Kidney problems
Teeth, gum and skin infections
Problems with your legs and feet
Nerve damage

MANAGEMENT
Diet / Eating healthy
Exercise
Medication
Controlling blood sugar level
Maintaining normal body weight

Millions of people worldwide have diabetes.


Although diabetes is a serious health
problem, with proper care you can learn to
manage your diabetes and lead a full and
active life.

HYPERTENSION
OR
BLOOD
PRESSURE

BLOOD PRESSURE
The force created as your heart pumps blood
and moves through your blood vessels.
Two numbers are recorded when checking
B/P
Systolic

pressure-force of blood in your vessels when your

heart pumps
Diastolic

pressure-force of the blood in your vessels in

between beats

When is Blood
Pressure too High?

High blood pressure is also called hypertension.


Normal range 130/85
High B/P = 140/90 and higher
The higher your B/P , the higher your chance of
getting a stroke.

Can you have


Hypertension?
Do you smoke?
Do you have diabetes, heart
disease or kidney disease?
Do you weigh more than
you should?
Are you African -American?

Are you age 35 or older?


Do you often eat fried, salty
or greasy foods?

Are you under a lot of stress?


Do you spend a lot of time
sitting?
Do you get little physical
activity?
Do you have 2 or more
drinks of alcohol every day?
Do you often get headaches
or wake up with a headache?

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
Usually no symptoms
are present.
However if the blood
pressure is excessively
high you may note the
following changes.

Tiredness
Confusion
Vision changes
Crushing chest pain
Heart failure
Blood in the urine
Nosebleed
Irregular heartbeat
Ear noise or buzzing

RISK FACTORS
A risk factor is anything that may increase a
persons chance of developing the disease.
Different diseases, including cancers, have
different risks factors.
Blood pressure measurements vary during
the course of the day, depending on your
activity level and even your emotional state.

RISK FACTORS

The following factors may contribute to an


increase in Blood Pressure:
1.
2.
3.

Being overweight
Excess sodium intake
A lack of exercise and physical activity

COMPLICATIONS
Increases your chances of getting a stroke
Damages blood vessel walls
Weakens blood vessel walls causing them to
break and killing blood cells.

MANAGEMENT

Control your diet.


Limit serving sizes.
Maintaining a healthy weight, or losing weight if overweight.
Increase physical activity.
Practicing moderation if consuming alcoholic beverages.
Take daily medication if necessary
Have regular blood pressure checks.
Reduce stress
Stop smoking

Category

Systolic reading
(mmHg)

Diastolic reading
(mmHg

Follow-up recommendation

Optimal

120

80

Recheck in two years

Normal

130

85

Recheck in 2 years

High Normal

130-139

85-89

Recheck in one year

Hypertension

140-159

90-99

Confirm within two months

160-179

100-109

Evaluate within one month

179

109

Evaluate immediately or within one


week depending on situation

Stage 1 (Mild)

Hypertension

Stage 2
(Moderate)

Hypertension
Stage 3
(Severe)

WHEN TO SEEK
MEDICAL ASSITANCE?

Severe headache
Excessive tiredness
Confusion
Visual changes
Nausea and vomiting
Chest pain
Shortness of breath
Excessive sweating

Remember
Hypertension is a
Silent Killer!!!!!!!!

Dont wait
Take Action Now
Confront the Killer
Learn the facts and
Follow your plan

CHOLESTEROL

CHOLESTEROL
A fatty substance found only in animal foods.
It is also made by our bodies.
Small amounts are needed by the body for
essential functions.
Excessive cholesterol forms a fatty plaque,
which sticks to the inside of our arteries and
can cause heart disease.

GOOD AND BAD


CHOLESTEROL
LDL bad cholesterol

Carries cholesterol around in the blood


Forms plaque in the arteries
Increases risk of heart disease

HDL good cholesterol

Carries cholesterol to liver and out of body


Helps avoid plaque and heart disease

MORE FATS IN THE


BLOOD
Triglycerides

A fat that circulates in blood and increases risk of


heart disease

Lipid profile

Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides.


Gives a picture of the balance between good and
bad cholesterol and other fats

NORMAL BLOOD LEVELS


Cholesterol (total)
LDL
HDL
Triglycerides

< 200 mg/dL


0-130 mg/dL
33-96 mg/dL
40-157 mg/dL

RISK FACTORS

High LDL cholesterol


Overweight and obesity
Hypertension or diabetes (type 2)
Unhealthy diet
Sedentary lifestyle
Family history
More common in men
Cigarette smoking
Especially a combination of several of these

MANAGEMENT
Eat a healthy diet.
Exercise regularly.
Keep weight in normal range.
If hypertensive or diabetic keep it under control.
Dont smoke tobacco.
Get your cholesterol checked at least once a
year if you have risk factors.

EXERCISE
Exercise boosts HDL (good)
Reduces risk of heart disease
Helps control weight
Helps control diabetes and hypertension
Exercise for at least 30 minutes daily
Choose a form of exercise that you enjoy
and can keep up.

Diabetes, Hypertension and


Cholesterol

Benefits of Diet to Your Health

Risk Factors
CONTROLLABLE

UNCONTROLLABLE

Smoking
Cholesterol levels
Obesity
Excessive alcohol intake
Salty and or high fat diet
Activity levels

Genes
Age (males between 35-50)
African American
Pre-existing cardiovascular
disease or stroke
Kidney disease
Diabetes
Family history

Benefits of Diet to Your Health


These conditions are lifestyle related
therefore:

Choosing a healthy lifestyle


Changing your diet
Participating in exercise and other stress
relieving activities
Reducing your weight

Healthy Eating
Diabetes
Eat 3 meals everyday at regular times
Ensure all meals are balanced - be sure to add
a protein food
Eat more high fibre foods
Limit the amount of high fat foods
Limit sugars and sweets
Limit dietetic foods
Limit salt and salty foods

Healthy Eating
Diabetes
DO NOT skip meals
When thirsty drink water 6-8 glasses a day
Limit alcohol intake
If overweight, choose smaller portions and
portion sixes that will help you reach healthy
body weight
Keep active every day have physical activity
as part of your life

Healthy Eating
Diabetes
Manage diabetes by balancing the kinds and
amounts of foods eaten.
Some foods raise blood sugar

Carbohydrates sugar and starches e.g. bread, cereals,


fruits, milk

Some foods slow down how fast sugar goes into


your bloodstream

Protein foods: meat, fish, cheese, poultry


Fats and oils: butter, margarine, gravy, oil, salad dressings

Healthy Eating
Diabetes

Dietary fibre: whole grain bread and cereals, fresh


fruits, vegetables, dried peas and beans

Other factors can lower your blood sugar

Activity or exercise

Healthy Eating
Hypertension
Eat a healthy and balanced diet low fat, and high in
fruits and vegetables
Eat lots of low-fat dairy foods, whole grain products
Reduce the amount of salt
Have at least 3 serving a day of high potassium foods
(bananas, raisins, squash, beet, potato, tomato)

Healthy Eating
Hypertension
Use fresh products rather than canned,
smoked or processed foods
Drink less alcohol limit yourself to no
more than 1-2 drinks a day
Practice read food labels

Healthy Eating
Cholesterol
Reduce the total amount of fats and oil in the diet. Avoid
fatty foods and fried foods bake, grill, steam or boil foods
instead of frying
Limit egg yolk to not more than 2-3 per week. This includes
egg yolks used in the preparation and cooking of foods e.g.
custards, eggnog, cakes, meatloaf.
Limit your use of organ meats (e.g. liver, heart, kidney) and of
shell fish (e.g. shrimp, lobster, conchs)

Healthy Eating
Cholesterol
Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat - bacon, sausages,
pastry, gravies, salad dressings, mayonnaise
Limit use of red meats instead use more fish, chicken, turkey
or dried peas, beans, lentils
Trim all visible fat from meats remove skin and before
cooking. Pour off the fat that melts during cooking
Use low fat and skim milk products instead of full cream
milk and dairy products

Healthy Eating
Cholesterol
Include foods that are high in fibre e.g. dried peas and beans,
nuts, whole wheat bread, whole grain cereals especially oats,
oat bran, fresh fruits and vegetables and ground provisions.
Choose fats wisely - use vegetable oils and margarines that
are high in polyunsaturated fats e.g. olive oil, canola oil, corn
oil, sunflower oil
Avoid saturated and trans fats too much can raise your
cholesterol levels

Healthy Eating
Cholesterol
Improving your diet is the most effective
way to maintain good cholesterol levels
IMPORTANT FACT:
It IS NOT the cholesterol found in foods that
causes high blood cholesterol.
It IS the FAT in food, particularly the
SATURATED FAT and TRANS FAT that
raises blood cholesterol.

THE HEALTHY PLATE

Unhealthy eating

Healthy eating

Relaxation

Visit your doctor


regularly
Check your weight

Balance intake with output


Exercise regularly

Summary
Eat right
Watch your weight -even a modest drop in
weight can make a difference
Be active - start a program of light exercise for
at least 30-45 minutes every day
Lower your stress levels. Practice stress
reduction techniques
Stop smoking and drinking alcohol