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Mr. Ram Singh (Lecturer) Deptt. Of Radio-Diagnosis & Imaging P.G.I.M.E.R
SUNIL KUMAR SEKSANA B. Sc. MT ( Final Year Student ) Deptt. Of Radio-Diagnosis & Imaging P.G.I.M.E.R
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY (DR) is a representation of continuous analog information into digital form by the use of computer which processes the digital data to form an image. Conventional radiography has dominated the filed of radiography for many years. But it has always been recognized that Film / Screen system has certain limitations.
LIMITATIONS OF FILM / SCREEN SYSTEM
Exposure error permanent on image. Faults in the film can lead to repeat the examination. Delay in viewing image. Dynamic range of the x-ray film is limited. Difficult to visualize widely varying tissue. Storage and retrieval cost. Copied radiographs are of inferior quality than the original one.
These limitations can be overcome by the incorporation of Computer Technology into the diagnostic X-ray imaging.
MILESTONE IN DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY
1977 Digital subtraction angiography. 1980 Scan projection Radiography. 1983 Computed radiography (CR) storage phosphors. 1990 Charge-coupled device (CCD) slot-scan direct radiography (DR). 1994 Selenium drum DR. 1995 Selenium-based flat-panel detector. 1995 Amorphous silicon–cesium iodide ( scintillator ) flat-panel detector. 1997 Gadolinium-based ( scintillator ) flat-panel detector. 2001 Dynamic flat-panel detector fluoroscopy.
SOME IMPORTANT DEFFINITION
PIXEL:- An abbreviation of the term 'picture element.' A pixel is the smallest picture element of a digital image. A monochrome pixel can have two values, black or white/1 or 0. VOXEL:– An abbreviation of the term ‘volume element.’ The smallest distinguishable box-shaped part of a 3D space.
WHAT IS A DIGITAL IMAGE?
Collection of pixels laid out in a specific order with width (x) and height (y) in pixels . • Each pixel has a numerical value which correspond to gray scale value.
IMAGE SIZE (mm) MATRIX SIZE (pixels)
Pixel size =
Image size Matrix size
Image size – Dimension of the field of view ( FOV ) within the patient’s body, not the size of a displayed image. Matrix size – Number of pixels along the length and width of an image.
SCAN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY
It is the method of obtaining high resolution digital X-ray images which requires the motion or scanning of an Xray beam during the image acquisition. It is the process of generating an X-ray projection radiograph by scanning with a fan beam of 2 – 10 mm thick and arced with 30* - 40*. Earlier Scan projection radiography (SPR) was performed on a computer tomography CT system by translating the patient through the CT gantry aperture.
COMPONENTS OF S.P.R. SYSTEM
- of high heat loading capacity (usually above 1 MHu ) is required because
of long imaging time & detector efficiency. Usually 20 – 50 cm body part of patient is imaged at a translation speed of 1 – 20 cm/s.
Pre-Patient Collimator. Post-Patient Collimator. Detector Array.
1. High radiographic contrast. 2. Low contrast detectibility. 3. Image manipulation. DISADVANTAGE 1. Poor spatial resolution. 2. Scanning time is more. 3. More radiation dose to the patient.
COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY - CR
Conventional Cassette is replaced by a cassette containing imaging plate ( IP ). Cassette is exposed in the same manner as conventional cassette. Latent image is formed in imaging plate. Latent image is made visible by processing the imaging plate into the reader.
COMPONENTS OF CR SYSTEM
CR Cassette with Imaging plates ID Tablet Image reader Image Processor Image recorder
CR CASSETTE WITH IMAGING PLATE
• Body: ABS ( Acrylonitryl butadiene styrene) • Corners: PUR (Polyurethane rubber) • Hinges: PP (Polypropylene) • Inner lining: felt
Sizes Same as that of conventional cassette.
Identification • Embedded memory chip • Contactless RF identification Backscatter protection • 150 μ lead Weight • 35 x 43 cm typical 1.6 kg
Fluorinated polymer material
PROTECTIVE LAYER PHOSPHOR LAYER ANTI-HALO & REFLECTIVE LAYER BASE BACKING LAYER
Ba FX: Eu +2
Anti-halo Layer + Reflecting Layer
- prevent laser from passing through.
Base:PET- Polyethylene teraphtalate
protects the base from damage.
After exposure the cassette is transferred to reader system Cassette is opened automatically and the imaging plate is transported for scanning by laser beam (He.Ne) It stimulate luminescence proportional to the X-Ray energy absorbed Luminescence signals are converted into electrical signals by photomultiplier tubes. Electrical signals are sampled and converted into digital signal by an ADC The digital data is processed to form an image which is displayed on the monitor
What Happens to the Plate in the Reader?
1. Cassette and image plate enter the reader
5. Image plate is returned to cassette and ejected
2. Image plate is removed from cassette
3. Latent image is scanned by laser
4. Image plate is erased with high intensity light
ADVANTAGE OF CR SYSTEM
- No special equipment is required. - Because of wider exposure latitude more information from the x-ray beam will be extracted. - Repeat becomes a matter of positioning rather than exposure factors. - All types of radiography is possible with CR system. - The image on the CRT can be manipulated in a variety of ways i.e. contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, black / white reversal (post processing). - Elimination of lost radiographs. - Simplification in filing the images. - Increased capability for consultation made possible by electronic transmission of digital images (networking system).
CCD Slot Scan Direct Radiography
Selenium Drum DR System
Rotating selenium-dotted drum, which has a positive electrical surface charge, is exposed to x-rays. During exposure, a charge pattern proportional to that of the incident x-rays is generated on the drum surface and is recorded during rotation by an analog-to-digital converter .
Advantage:provide good image quality that is superior to that provided by screen-film or CR systems.
Disadvantage:because of their mechanical design, selenium drum detectors are dedicated thorax stand systems with no mobility at all.
Direct radiography – DR (sometimes termed direct digital radiography or even digital radiography) 1. flat panel detectors - FPD a. direct conversion - converts x-ray energy directly into an electrical signal. b. indirect conversion - converts x-ray energy into light signal then into electrical signal. 2. charge coupled device - CCD - x rays interact with phosphor which emits light. - CCD captures emitted light and stores energy as ‘trapped” electrons. - stored electrons are ‘read out” and converted to digital signal.
PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY As screen-film radiography serves detector and storage medium both, digital detectors are used only to generate the digital image. The digital image then stored on a digital medium. Digital imaging comprises four separate steps:
generation. processing. archiving. presentation of the image.
DIRECT DIGITAL IMAGING
Components required for direct digital image production are - X-ray source. - An electronic sensor. - Computer - Analog to Digital converter (ADC). - Screen monitor. - Printer.
INDIRECT DIGITAL CONVERSION
-Indirect conversion of x-rays to electric signal. -Phosphor converts X-rays to light and photodiode converts emitted light into electrical signals. -Commonly used phosphors are thallium doped Cesium Iodide or Gadolinium OxySulphide. -Less sensitive to ambient temperature variations.
1. Cesium Iodide (Scintillator)
- needle structure provides high resolution and absorption - outgoing light spectrum ideally matches aSi sensitivity - high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency)
x high spatial resolution, excellent image quality within a wide kV range x capability for lower dose
2. Amorphous Silicon Matrix
- industry standard for large area electronics - high stability with respect to X-ray - the only effective way to obtain images for radiography a n d fluoroscopy
x high resolution over a large area x high reliability and cost effectiveness
3. Optimized Electronics
- high signal to noise ratio - fast and efficient reading of line discs together with readout ICs
x the quality and availability of images is equal or superior to film x fast image acquisition
Important part of overall digital system Primary viewing station should have high quality monitor Considerations 1. LCD vs. CRT 2. luminance or brightness 3. contrast ratio 4. resolution
Digital Image & Communication in Medicine Is the digital imaging standard that allows images to be shared or moved between different pieces of equipment from different manufacturers securely. Essential for teleradiology and communication between other DICOM systems.
Picture Archival and Communication System • Used for storage and distribution of digital images. • Allows one to have all others previous exams available for comparison. • Allows multiple simultaneous viewing.
ADVANTAGES OF DDR
- Increased workflow efficiency, saving time and labour. - Very short exposure time, eliminating motion blur ( as high powered integrated x-ray system). - Auto selection of filter and focal spot size. - Automatic tracking for easy positioning. - Automatic exposure control facility reduce the chance of repeat. - Immediate availability of image for quality check and diagnosis.
- virtually no missing images due to digital storage
LIMITATIONS OF DDR
- High initial cost. - Some radiographic views are difficult as detectors are not free to be placed in any position.
CR vs. DR
CR – - more flexible. - lower cost. - Portable (still have to use CR reader to process cassette, image available in 90 sec) DR – - higher throughput (images within few seconds). - more expensive. - Portable – generally thought to have best quality image.
Dynamic flat-panel detector fluoroscopy
Dynamic detector: Integris Allura
Scintillator: CsI:Tl needle crystals
Thickness 550µm good X-ray absorption Needles act as light-guides sharp MTF CsI:Tl emits green light
Photodiode array: a-Si technology
Same technology as used in active matrix LCDs (TFT displays) a-Si photodiodes: high sensitivity for green light
Integris Allura Flat Dynamic Detector for Cardio
Digital Diagnost Detection Field of view static 43 cm x 43 cm Integris Allura FD static + dynamic (up to 30 frames/s) 18 cm x 18 cm 1k x 1k
Number of pixels 3k x 3k Pixel size DQE(0)
143 µm x 143 µm 184 µm x 184 µm ≈ 60 % ≈ 75 %
Technical features of Various Digital radiography System
Feature Converter Readout Detector size 14x17 14x17 17x17 14x17 17x17 17x17 Pixel Size Matrix
Screen Film Gd2O2S Storage Phosphor Slot scan CCD Direct FPD BaFBr:Eu CsI:Tl Se Gd2O2S Indirect FPD CsI:Tl
Film LASER CCD Active Se Matrix Active Si Matrix Active Si Matrix
Grain size- ……….. 2 200 162 139 160 143 1760x2140 2736x2736 2560x3072 2688x2688 3121x3121
IMAGE RECEPTOR COMPARISION
RADIATION DOSE GENERATION OF VISIBLE IMAGE IMAGE VIEWING
Lower Laser scanner, Computer
Lower Computer In few seconds, Computer monitor 8-10lp/mm Thick, rigid, wire Reusable Multiple operationsContrast, Density, Magnification, positive/Negative, measurement
Delayed, View box Delayed, Computer transillumination monitor 16-20lp/mm Thin, flexible Single use Fixed unchangeable image 6-8lp/mm Thin, flexible Reusable after erasure Multiple operationsContrast, Density, Magnification, positive/Negative, measurement
RESOLUTION CONSTRUCTION LIFE SPAN IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
Variety of archiving Variety of archiving method Server, Zip, CD method Server, Zip, CD
Image Quality Parameters
♦ Dynamic Range & Contrast ♦ Limiting Spatial Resolution (LSR) ♦ Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) ♦ Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
Contrast / Dynamic Range
Contrast levels or film densities generated over a range of x-ray exposure levels
Narrow Dynamic Range
Dynamic range is a measure of the signal response of a detector that is exposed to x-rays
Wide Dynamic Range
straight Toe part
X-ray Detected 51
Limiting Spatial Resolution (LSR)
Spatial resolution refers to the minimum resolvable separation between high-contrast objects. In digital detectors, spatial resolution is defined and limited by the minimum pixel size.
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
Quantum mottle is an appearance of noise in the radiographic image due to low SNR of the information reaching the image recording system.
Contrast Ratio Sign al Nois e
Impact of Noise
Quantum and electronic noise are unavoidable in a digital imaging chain. The effect, often expressed as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), 5: 1 can vary widely from system to system. SN
obj SN ect det R ect abil ity 2: incr eas 1 es SN ver R y rapi dly.
Useful Image Formation = -------------------------------------Erratic Information
MTF :- Modulation transfer function (MTF) is the capacity of the
detector to transfer the modulation of the input signal at a given spatial frequency to its output.
X_Ray Photons Light Photons Electrons
CsI Low Scattering Good MTF SEMINAR - " DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY "
No Scattering “Perfect” MTF
Detective Quantum Efficiency ( DQE )
Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is one of the fundamental physical variables related to image quality in radiography and refers to the efficiency of a detector in converting incident x-ray energy into an image signal. It dependent on
- Radiation exposure, - Spatial frequency, - MTF, - Detector material. - Quality of the radiation applied (voltage and current).
Artifacts in Digital Radiography
1. image plate artifacts ( In CR ).
Due to cracking Imaging Plate
2. Plate Reading Artifact ( in CR )
Line caused from dirt collected in a CR Reader.
Damaged Laser beam head in CR reader. Appears as multiple linear white lines.
3. Image processing artifacts
Missing lines or pixels ( indicating digitization problems ).
towel used to help in positioning a child.
Double exposure: Radiographs of both feet and pelvis (arrowheads) on a single film.
Digital detector is MORE sensitive
CR PHOSPHOR PLATE CLEANER
Dust and dirt build up on CR phosphor plates, leading to image artifacts. To avoid this, plates need cleaning at regular intervals. Solvent • Ethanol 99.7% Additives • Catanac SN (Cyastat SN 50) 0.3% Safety • Highly flammable • Keep container closed • Keep away from sources of ignition
For Conventional Projection or DR Radiography: The same rules, theories, and
laws still apply and can not be overlooked - FFD/OFD (SID/SOD). - Inverse Square Law. - Beam Alignment. - Tube-Part-Film Alignment. - Collimation. - Grids. - Exposure Factors: KVP, mAs.
PERIODIC QUALITY CONTROL
– Film processor maintenance (if – General inspection. any). – Film processor / Laser – Inspect and clean image printer. receptors. – Erase imaging plates. – Review film retake rate. – Verify digital interfaces and Semi-Annually / Annually (Physicist) network transmission. – Evaluate image quality. Weekly (technologist) – Acceptance tests to re-establish baseline values. – Test phantom images. – Review. – System cleanliness.
QC records. Service history.
By their tremendous impact on the image quality, radiation dose and workflow, digital radiography systems have become practicable alternatives. CR is a simple and cost effective technology that permits use of existing radiographic equipment. It has been suggested that for moderate work load ( up to 50-60 films per day), a CR system is adequate. High cost of a DR system is justified only when the workload is much beyond this level.