APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO HUMAN WELFARE

Presented By: P.Deepthi Priyanka 

The term biotechnology is defined as the development & utilization of biological processes, forms & systems for obtaining maximum benefits to man & other forms of life. The term biotechnology was coined by Karl Ereky in 1917.

BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLIED IN VARIOUS FIELDS

Pollution control

Prevention , diagnosis & cure of disease

Production of commercial products

Application of biotechnology

DNA profiling /finger printing To save plants & animals from extinction

Transgenic animals production

Plant tissue culture

PRODUCTION OF CLONED GENES , HORMONES , VACCINES AND OTHER CHEMICALS :
General procedure of production using RDNA technology :
MRNA/ DNA
Restriction Enzymes

CDNA/DNA fragments

Cloning vector (plasmid, cosmid)

ligation Recombinant DNA

Desired Products

E.g.: vaccines, interferon , antibiotics , vitamines, super bugs , mono clonal anti bodies.

PRODUCTION USING RDNA TECHNOLOGY

Hormones Antibiotics Interferon's

Alcohol

PRODUCTION

Enzymes

Organic acid

Vitamins

vaccines 

Pharmaceutical extraction of there products cannot meet annual demands so cloning methods are followed. 1000 to 1,00,000 molecules of the product can be produced from 1 cell of ecoli by RDNA technology.  

 

Hormones:
Hormone is a chemical messenger that transports signals from one cell to another. Hormones are required in deficiency disease or inherited disease E.g: Insulin - metabolises glucose in blood. RDNA product insulin- Is a boon for diabetic patients. Somatotropin - Growth hormone Its deficiency causes turner¶s syndrome in girls , which is Characterized by short stature and nonfunctioning ovaries .
Stunted growth 

Interferons :
Interferons are secreted by human cells to resist the immediate invasion by virus and multiplication of abnormal cells. They are used in cancer treatment . Interferon¶s produced by this RDNA method are well tolerated and stable for 2years. 

VACCINES vaccines are chemical substances prepared from the antigens of other animals which evokes immunity in human or animal for a particular disease . vaccines for -Hepatitis B -Rabies -Polio virus -Small pox -Malarial vaccines are also developed.

‡VITAMINS ‡ VITAMIN
Riboflavin B 12

precursor of vitA

SOURCE -Ashbya gossypii -Bacillus coagulans -Bacillus megaterium -streptomycess olivacious -Blakeslea trispora

ORGANIC ACIDS
Eg: Citric acid -Aspergillus niger Lactic acid -Lactobacillus bacteria USES: Food industry- jams, jellies ,fruit juices, candies, confectionaries, wines Pharmacy- blood transfusions, effervescent products Cosmetics- astringent lotions, shampoos, hair setting fluids Industries-lather tanning, cleaning of pipes

ALCOHOLS 
Produced by yeast or bacterial fermentation USESSolvent, extractant , anti freeze Industry- N-butanol is used in manufacture of plasticizer, break fluids Liquid fuel -gasohol Pharmacy±glycerol Ethanol- alcoholic beverage
Extraction-soxhlet apparatus FUEL

ANTIBIOTICS:
These are the complex chemical substances which are produced by micro-organisms and act against other micro-organisms ORGANISM Penicillium notatum ANTIBIOTIC Penicillin(G) APPLICATIONS -fever, pneumonia, genital infections -UTI, pneumonia, meningitis -TB -cholera, tetanus, UTI -dermatitis, infections, dysentry

Cephalosporium acremonium

Cephalosporins

Streptomyces griseus Streptomyces aureofaciens Bacillus subtilis

Streptomycin Tertracyclins Bacitracin

ENZYMES
‡Enzymes produced by micro-organisms: Extraction Fermentation Immobilisation RDNA technology ‡APPLICATIONS:

‡Used in the treatment of genetic disorders ‡Used in synthesis of proteins & peptides, aminoacids. ‡Used in manufacture of drugs. ‡Clinical analysis ‡Medical diagnosis ± in ELISA, Enzyme thermistors
ELISA technique

Overcoming self sterility

Cryopreservation of germ plasm

Breaking dormancy Edible vaccine , antibodies Early flowering Synthetic seeds Somatic hybrids Disease free plants

Plant tissue culture

Primary & secondary metabolites

TRANSGENIC ANIMALS: Some of the transgenic animals produced are cow, pig, rabbit, goat, sheep , fish Purpose :  To increase Nutrition value : more milk production from cows , more proteins in milk and meat . To produce disease resistant animals  Greater yields of by-products like leather, wool  To produce good quality fishes with more fat and protein content.  More nutrient food is made available for the people suffering from malnutrition.

PREVENTION , DIAGNOSIS , AND CURE OF DISEASES: 

Prevention 1. vaccines 2. immunogenic proteins 

Diagnoses 1. By DNA probe 2. Monoclonal Antibodies 3. Antenatal Diagnosis 

Cure -

Gene therapy

DNA Probes: This is used for diagnosis of pathogens containing most specific DNA sequence of genetic material of the parasite (like virus, bacteria or protozoa). DNA sequence is recognised(which should not relate to other strains) recognised DNA is cut (using restriction endonucleases enzyme) it is inserted into cloning vector (plasmid) bacterial vector transformed , mutiplied DNA sequence of parasite isolated is labelled with radio-isotope & used as PROBE Thus disease is diagonised +ve if dark bands appear on X-ray film Eg. Tuberculosis

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
USES: oDRUGS- for AIDS, cancer, infections oDIAGNOSIS- Cancer-colorectal cancer -lung cancer -breast cancer -Pregnancy -Allergies -Hormonal disease -viral disease oDiagnostic Agents- used in ELISA & RIA.

ANTENATAL DIAGNOSIS 
2500 genetic defects known to occur in human. eg- haemophilia If a pregnant woman bears a child with a genetic defect, she is often advised to abort it, thus the technique of diagnosis & giving suggestions for abortion of a genetically defected child is known as antenatal diagnosis The genetically determined defects of function or synthesis of haemoglobin is known as haemoglobinopathy.
Mother edema

haemoglobinopathies Foetal pedal edema

GENE THERAPY
Delivering genes into humans to correct diseases has been accepted as scientifically viable is called gene therapy Eg: Insulin, Inteferon, Somatotropin, Somatostatin, Human blood clotting factors, Immunogenic proteins, Antibodies, Vaccines etc.

DNA FINGER PRINTING OR DNA PROFILING
DNA master molecule of all life forms. Neucleotides forms codes, so this genetic coded information can be profiled to produce authentic Identity cards for any organism. So, this complicated technique of identifying individuals at genetic level is known as DNA Finger printing. Basics requirements ±availability of blood stains, hair with root, drops of semen, skin cells, mouth swab, bone marrow, cell of any body tissue.

Solving disputed problems of parentage

Immigration dispute

Identification of criminals, and rapists, totally burnt body Setting of genetic data banks

DNA profilling

Forensic science

Reuniting lost children

TO SAVE PLANTS & ANIMALS FROM EXTINCTION
By Cryopreservation:  Animal and plant species can be saved from extinction by preserving their cell lines. Preservation of germ plasms is done at -79°c over solid carbondioxide or in liquid nitrogen at -196°C . liquid nitrogen is more prefered for longer storage.

TO SUBSIDE POLLUTION:
BY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE AND EFFLUENTS 


Is possible through genetically engineered micro organism. For detoxification and degradation of chemicals , enzymes are encoded by specific genes present on their plasmid Plasmids introduced organisms utilize no. of organic acids and toxic chemicals like toulene , chloro benzenes, halogenated pesticides and ethylenes etc and render them harmless. A new product SUPER BUG( oil eating bug) was produced by genetic enginnering by introducing plasmids from different strains into a single cell of Pseudomonas putida. This can degrate many substrates like tolenes, xylenes, octane, camphor, napthalene etc.