ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (OLEDS

)
By: Saurabh Saini (2206096) 8th SEM.

OLED is an acronym for Organic Light Emitting Diode.  An OLED is a solid state device (based on electroluminescence) composed of thin films of organic polymers that produce light on the application of electricity.  

The device is 100 to 500 nanometers
thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. 

OLED¶s can provide brighter, crisper displays and it

uses less power than conventional light-emitting diodes or liquid crystal displays 

The Top Layer is the Cathode layer made of tungsten releases electrons when current is run through it.

What the Organic Light Emitting Diode consist of: 

Emissive Layer transport electrons from the cathode layer to make light. One polymer used is polyflurene. Conductive layer is made from a type of organic plastic that transport holes from the anode. One polymer used is polyaniline. Then the Anode Layer that consist of removing and adding electron holes while the current is running through it and is made from graphite particles Followed by the Substrate layer is used to support the Organic LED and is made up of glass, clear plastic   

How OLEDs emit light? 
Low Voltage bias( 2.5 ~ 20 V) is applied

on the electrodes, but the active layers are so thin that the electric fields in the active layers are very high (105 ± 107 V/cm) 

These high, near-breakdown electric

fields support injection of charges across the electrode / active layers interfaces. Holes are injected from the anode, and electrons are injected from the cathode. 

The injected charges migrate against

each other in the opposite directions, and eventually meet and recombine. 

Recombination energy is released from

the molecule / polymer segment as photons. 

The substrates are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)

glasses with a sheet resistance of 20-30Ÿ. 

Cathode / Anode: Lif-Al.  TPD and Alq3 are used hole and electron

transport layers respectively. 

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was used as another anode buffer layer. 

All the devices consist of the structure

ITO/CuPc/TPD/Alq3/LiF-Al.

Making OLEDs 
Vacuum Deposition or Vacuum Thermal

Evaporation (VTE)
Here the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. This process is expensive and inefficient. 

Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD)
In a low-pressure, hot-walled reactor chamber, a carrier gas transports evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates, where they condense into thin films. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs 

Inkjet Printing (Best)

contd.. 
With inkjet technology, OLEDs are sprayed

onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens. 

Advantage:

high-resolution, low cost, materials saving simultaneously 

Selectively deposit many layers in a display  Surface properties of the substrate affect the

uniformity of the film thickness 

Passive matrix OLED  Active matrix OLED  Transparent OLED  Top emitting OLED  Foldable OLED  White OLED 

PMOLEDS are easy to

make,but they consume more power than other types of OLED, mainly due to power needed by external circuitry. 

PMOLEDs are most

efficient for text and icons and best suited for small screens (2- to 3- inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players 

AMOLEDs consume less

power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large displays.  AMOLEDs have faster refresh rates suitable for video.  Used in computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic signs and billboards. 

TOLEDs have only

transparent components (substrate, cathode, anode) and when turned off, are upto 85% as transparent as their substrate.  When TOLEDs is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions.  A TOLED display can be either active- or passivematrix. This technology can be used for head-updisplays. 

TEOLED has a

substrate that is either opaque or reflective.  They are best suited to active-matrix design.  TEOLED can be used in smart cards. 

FOLED have substrate made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics.  They are light-weight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage.  Potentially, FOLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create ³smart´ clothing. 

WHOLEDs emit white light that is brighter, more uniform and more efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights.  WOLEDs also have true color qualities incandescent lighting.  Because they can be made in large sheets, they can replace fluorescent lights. 

Brighter than LEDs because the organic layers are much thinner and can be multi-layered  OLED substrates can be plastic rather than glass  Easier to produce and can be made into larger sizes  Do not require backlighting like LCDs - LCDs work by selectively blocking areas of the backlight to make the images that you see, while OLEDs generate light themselves  Consume much less power than LCDs - This is especially important for battery-operated devices such as cell phones  Have large fields of view, about 170 degrees

Organic materials have a shorter lifetime than LCD and plasma screens Intrusion of water can destroy the organic materials -Compensated by complex sealing processes -Complex sealing processes make product less flexible Manufacturing processes are EXPENSIVE!

Applications 
Current main applications 
     

Small monochrome displays for hand held electronic devices (cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, GPS receivers etc.) Ultra-lightweight, wall-size television monitors Large screen computer monitors General White applications (to replace incandescent / halogen and fluorescent) Head-up instrument for aircraft and automobiles. Lighting panels for illumination of residential and commercial buildings, advertising boards etc. Color-changing lighting panels and light walls for home and office, etc.

Application Future Application
‡OLED¶s can be printed onto flexible substrates and this allows for new

innovations such as roll-up displays and displays embedded in fabrics ‡Green technology- OLED screens turned ³off´ will consumer no power at all and show true black while LCD screens can not ‡The prototype of a thin ,rollable flexible OLED display by Universal Display Corp. 

This is how a keyboard

looks in a near future using OLEDs 

Brightness and Lifetime requirement 
State of art OLED brightness and lifetime-100 nits and

40,000 hours.  High brightness level require the display driving voltage levels to be increased which trades off expected lifetime. 

Moisture sensitivity 
Over-time moisture can react with organic layers and

cause degradation and defects in an OLED display  Sealing techniques used decreases flexibility.

Thank you

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