Ontology Management

Survey, Requirement and Direction

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Aug 14+15

OTK 2nd Review

1

Outline
 Ontology library system
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Evaluation models Summary and requirement Requirement Proposal

 Ontology versioning
q q

 Summary and conclusions

Aug 14+15

OTK 2nd Review

2

Ontology Library System
(OLS)
Evaluation Model
O1 O2 O3 On

Management - Storage - Identification - Versioning

Adaptation - Searching - Editing - Reasoning

Standardization - Language - Upper-level ontology

Aug 14+15

OTK 2nd Review

3

Management
 Storage
q

Accessibility:
• client/server-based architecture • web accessible

q

Classification • It is necessary to classify ontology in an OLS in order to facilitate searching, managing and re-using ontology. Some of the ontology classification mechanisms available are based on distinguishable features of ontologies.

Aug 14+15

OTK 2nd Review

4

Management
 Storage
q

Modular organization
• serve to maximize cohesion within modules and minimize interaction between modules. • facilitate ontology re-use, ontology mapping and integration • ONIONS highlights the stratified design of an ontology library system. • Different naming policies assist OLS to achieve the modular organization or stratified storage of ontologies. • The disjointed partitioning of classes can facilitate modularity, assembling, integrating and consisting checking of ontologies.

 Identification
q

Unique ontology URL, Identifier and name

 Versioning
q Unfortunately, only Aug 14+15

SHOE supports it. OTK 2nd Review

5

Adaptation
 Searching & Editing
q

q q q

feature a visualized browsing environment, using hyperlinks or cross-references to closely related information. support collaborative editing offer advanced searching features monitor user profiles based on access patterns in order to personalize the view of ontologies A simple reasoning function should be included in order to facilitate ontology creation, ontology mapping and integration.
OTK 2nd Review 6

 Reasoning
q

Aug 14+15

Standardization
 Language
q q

q

Syntactically, language should be standardized or inter- or intra- ontology language translation should be supported. Semantically, OLS should feature the common vocabulary (or faceted taxonomy). At any rate, it should eliminate the implicitness and misunderstanding of terms in different ontologies. Preferably, OLS should also support compatibility with or mapping between multiple controlled vocabularies from different domains (The structures of these common vocabularies

or multiple controlled vocabularies must be faceted, or modulated. These vocabularies can help in simple synonym matching, sibling analysis, and disjoint partition checking).

 Upper-level Ontology
q

Standard upper-level ontology is important for better organization of OLS (Ontolingua, IEEE SUO).
OTK 2nd Review 7

Aug 14+15

Others
 Ontology scalability
q

increase the scale of ontologies. provide some maintenance features, such as consistency checking, diagnostic testing, support for changes, and adaptation of ontologies for different applications. extensively and explicitly documented include such information as how the ontology was constructed, how to make extensions and what the ontology’s naming policy, organizational principles and functions are. pave the way for efficient ontology management and reuse.
OTK 2nd Review 8

 Maintaining facility
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 Explicit documentation
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q

Aug 14+15

Ontology versioning
 Definition: the ability to handle changes in ontologies by creating and managing different variants of it  Goal:exploit as much knowledge as possible q Identification: for every use of a concept or a relation, a versioning framework should provide an unambigious reference to the intended definition q Change tracking: a versioning framework should make the relation of one version of a concept or relation to other versions of that construct explicit q Transparent evolution versioning Aug 14+15 OTK web should make clear 9 methodology on the 2nd Review

Ideas on ontology identification
 Putting it together
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q q

different causes of change give different types of change several types of compatibility minimal ontological commitment for data sources maximizes validness of data across different versions

Aug 14+15

OTK 2nd Review

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Identification and referring proposal
 Distinguish between three classes of resources:
q

files, ontologies, lines of backward compatible ontologies

 Use URL for file identification, new URI scheme for other two  Two level numbering
q q

minor numbers for backward compatible changes major numbers for incompatible changes

 Concepts that only differ in minor number are equivalent  Backward compatible additions are added as instance of class “Addition” class, e.g. Additions1.3  Data refers to the minimal necessary minor number
Aug 14+15 OTK 2nd Review 11

Summary
 Well-structured Ontology Library systems (OLSs) are of the great importance to secure the efficient reuse of ontologies, including ontology generation, integration, mapping, maintenance, and versioning (evolving).  Robustness for change is essential for the Semantic Web  Ontology identification and referring is Aug 14+15 of the most OTK 2nd Review one important aspects of 12