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FLUENCY STRATEGIES FOR UPPER

ELEMENTARY STUDENTS
By: Justin Ramsey

WHY IS FLUENCY IMPORTANT?
• Bridges the gap between word recognition and

comprehension, by strengthening decoding and word
recognition skills.

• Reading fluently does not guarantee a student will

comprehend a passage, but it is difficult to comprehend
without reading fluently.

• It is often undervalued in classroom instruction.

• Reread to regain comprehension. • Stop often to sound out words letter by letter (decode). . read and process only one word at a time. • Eyes fixate (stop) on every word read. • See. • Use phonics exclusively as their cueing reading strategy.SIGNS OF A NON-FLUENT READER • Reads slowly and laboriously. • Be interrupted whenever they make a miscue. This is called regression. • Read on whether it makes sense or not.

SIGNS OF A FLUENT READER • Accurate • Effortless (free of word identification problems) • Appropriately phrased • Natural paced • Smooth • Expressive • Well understood by both reader and listener .

Confidence = Motivation .WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF DAILY FLUENCY WORK? • Improving reading fluency is a necessary step toward improve reading comprehension. • Becoming a fluent reader builds confidence. Direct correlation between below level readers and academic self-confidence. • As a result. All students care about becoming a strong reader. fluent readers are more likely to choose to read.

ESTIMATED WORDS PER MINUTE BY AGE LEVEL Beginning to End of Year Range for Words Per Minute (WPM) 6 year olds 50 -70 wpm 7 year olds 70 -100 wpm 8 year olds 100 -130 wpm 9 year olds 130 -140 wpm 10 year olds 140 -160 wpm .

it refers to a person’s ability to read words in a text. and pauses. • Rate. Commonly known as “reading with feeling”. .THREE COMPONENTS OF FLUENCY: • Accuracy.Refers to stress.Also known as automaticity.The Speed in which a person reads. expression. • Prosody.

Record the students to watch afterwards.Keep the students engaged by varying your strategies. . • Mix it up.WHAT IT SHOULD LOOK LIKE: • Be Loud.Show the students what to do AND what not to do.Read everything aloud. • Immediate Feedback. • Don’t Forget to Model.Peers or Teacher can instantly correct mistakes.

However.AN EXAMPLE OF A WEEKLY FLUENCY LAYOUT: • No more than 5-10 minutes • Should begin your reading instruction • Tongue Twisters: Emphasizes speed and pronunciation • Fluency Passages: Emphasizes Enunciation and accuracy with goal of improving both speed and accuracy. accuracy is a higher priority than speed .

FLUENCY STRATEGIES -Choral Reading -Shared/Paired Reading -Timed Fluency Passages -Super Speed 1000 -Accuracy & Expression Fluency passages -Poetry -Tongue Twisters -Readers Theater .

only a small number of these appear frequently in the materials we read. • Fry Phrases follow the same concept and incorporate 100 most common words into his phrases to improve fluency. studies have shown that there are only 13 different words that make up 25% of the words we read.FRY PHRASES EXPLAINED… • Although there are more than 600. 100 words that make up 50% of the words we read. In fact. . These words are called highfrequency words. and 300 words make up 67% of the words we read.000 words in the English language.

• Don’t be afraid to dip lower for struggling readers. • If students master the words on grade level. • I usually pair two lists together: 6’s/7’s. & 10’s/11’s.FRY PHRASES For Ages 6 years old to 11 years old • Read a minimum of 3 days a week • Read each list 2-3 times each (depending on time). 8’s/9’s. move higher. .

PVC pipe can be found at hardware stores.FRY PHRASES Using a whisper phone allows the students to hear themselves pronounce words. .

• Assess accuracy the same way you would with running records. • Provide immediate feedback after student finishes reading. .HIGH FREQUENCY WORD PHRASES For Ages 6 years old to 10 years old • This is lead by the 16-point rubric • (4 sections x 4 possible points) • Always find compliments to go with areas to improve.

• I record time only for records. Have the students read independently 2 more times. • Emphasize expression and focus on appropriate pausing. • Wednesday and Friday. not to determine wpm.• HIGH FREQUENCY WORD PHRASES Choral Read the word phrases one time on Monday. students practice reading the story 3x each. For Ages 6 years old to 10 years old .

HIGH FREQUENCY WORD PHRASES This is a video. . Hover over the bottom and click play.

students should be making some mistakes. • Training the brain to say the words quickly with little decoding. • Challenge the students to read the short tongue twisters 3x in succession.TONGUE TWISTERS Good for 7’s through 11’s • Tongue Twisters are great for pronunciation. • I don’t push speed too often. The longer ones 2x in a row . unless the students are going too slow. However. That is when we know they are challenging themselves. Accuracy is more important than speed.

They practice each one for one minute. have them come back to their desks and choose their favorite.TONGUE TWISTERS – NOW YOU TRY ONE… • I usually give two to my students at once. • Try to nudge the students past their fears of public speaking. the fear will go away and they may even ask to say their second choice. • When done. Once they do it a few times. • Invite the students to read them while standing in front of the class. . They can read standing up at their desk until they become comfortable. Allow the students to spread around the room. Some students will be afraid.

etc… • This helps immensely when time to introduce the poetry unit. Readers Theater • Repetitive reading mixed with a focus on expression.FLUENCY PASSAGES Poetry • I read a poem to my students every day. • Invite students to read the poems. Perform the play on the 3rd day. • Rehearse the play 2x a day. Or do both!! :-D . Which I have them do after special events: Field trips. holiday parties. Either video record for students to watch or invite a younger class to come watch. 3 days a week. • Students love readers theater. They enjoy listening and are eager to write their own.

• One person reads and one person follows along to catch any mistakes being made and keeps track of time. science. • Repeat this process three times. • Passage resources are This is a video. and a clipboard. or cultural studies . Then they switch roles. • Student doesn’t start timing until the other person begins reading. Hover over online and you can use a textbook from reading. Need a stop watch.TIME FLUENCY PASSAGES • Done with partners. two different colored pencils.

TIME FLUENCY PASSAGES .

Instead of the reading group reading together. • Running Records – Can be found on Reading A-Z and with new upper elementary curriculum. • Choral Reading is beneficial to slow down the overly fast readers and speed up the slower readers. I stop and have them restart. • Paired/shared reading is the same as above. Can play with a partner or individually. I purposely pair up slowest and fastest reader one day and pair the top readers & slower readers together another day.OTHER STRATEGIES: • Super Speed 1000 – New fun game. . it involves only two students. If they become off-rhythm. Takes one minute. I emphasize reading at the same time.

RESOURCE S: • I have a variety of resources and examples to share via Google Docs Drive. I will email you the resources. Last year. • It is never too late or to early to introduce your class to fluency. I took a 5th grader reading on grade level in the fall of 2013 and he is reading on an 8th grade reading level in the fall of this year. improved from reading below grade level to on grade level. Everyone can benefit!! . Another student who struggles with multi-syllabic decoding. Please write down your email addresses and please give it to me.

org . and model for the students. • If you have any questions.CLOSING THOUGHTS: • Remember. mix up the strategies. repetitive reading is important for fluency. Read out loud.qsi. email me at: • Justin-Ramsey@ksc.

• Explain how you would integrate one new concept addressed in this session to a content area such as math. or science. social studies.REFLECTION: WITH A PARTNER • Summarize 3 key concepts addressed in this session. . • Describe how you would apply one new concept to your fluency instruction.