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WCDMA Handovers

Soc Classification level
1
© Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Handover types
Node B
Node B

Node B

Frequency
f1

Sector 1
f1

Sector 1

Sector 3
f1

Frequency
f1

Soft Handover

Sector 2
f1

Node B

Sector 3

Softer Handover

BTS

RNC

RNC
UMTS

Node B

Node B

GSM900/1800

Inter-System
Handover

Iur
Iub

Iub

Node B
Frequency
f1

Frequency
f2

Soc Classification level
2
© Nokia Siemens Networks

Hard/Inter-Frequency Handover

Node B
Frequency
f1

4

Frequency
f1

Measurement Control
I am in the
RRC idle mode

UE

UTRAN
System Information
[BCCH]
SIB 3 & SIB 11

I am in the
CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH or
URA_PCH sub-state

UE
System Information
[BCCH]

UE

Node B

RNC

UTRAN
Measurement Control
[DCCH]
Node B

• SIB 3 [4]: parameters for cell selection and re-selection [in the RRC connected
mode]
• SIB 11 [12] : measurement control information [in the RRC connected mode]
read and valid: idle, CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, URA_PCH.
(SIB 11/12 is also valid in the CELL_DCH.)
Soc Classification level
4
© Nokia Siemens Networks

RNC

UTRAN

SIB 4 & SIB 12
(SIB 3 & SIB 11)
I am in the
CELL_DCH sub-state

Node B

RNC

DCCH] RNC UE Measurement Control [RLC-AM.Measurement Control and Measurement Report RNC UE Measurement Control [RLC-AM. DCCH] Measurement Report Soc Classification level 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks RNC . DCCH] Measurement Control Failure There is a measurement event! UE [RLC-UM/AM. DCCH] [RLC-AM.

Measurement Control Measurement Control ( ) RNC UE UE IEs Measurement IEs Measurement Identity Measurement Command setup/modify/release Measurement Reporting Mode RLC AM/UM and periodical reporting/event trigger Additional measurements list includes non-frequency related cell info PhyCH IEs Measurement Type Measurement Events Part II Traffic Volume Measurement 4A. 2C. 6D. 1E. 3D CHOICE Measurement type DPCH compressed mode status info Soc Classification level 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks . 1C. 6E. 2F Part VII Inter-RAT Measurements 3A. 1B. 4B Part III UE Internal Measurements 6A. 3B. 1D. 2E. 2D. 6G Part IV Quality Measurements 5A Part V Intra-Frequency Measurements 1A. 6C. 6F. 6B. 3C. 1F Part VI Inter-Frequency Measurements 2A. 2B.

total 48 • ADJG: 32 Soc Classification level 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks .Maximum number of neighbours The maximum number of neighbours that can be defined in RNC database is • ADJS: 31 – 31 neighbours + serving cell = 32 cells to measure • ADJI: 32/carrier.

Soft Handover HC supports the following measurement reporting events and features: • Event 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range (Ncell addition) • Event 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range (Ncell deletion) • Event 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH (Ncell replacement) •Handover decision performed by RNC based on measurements and available resources •Admission Control can reject the branch addition in case the maximum load is achieved in DL (threshold + offset). •Hard blocking may prevent branch addition Soc Classification level 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks . valid both for RT and NRT bitrates.

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient Strongest CPICH in AS Ec/Io P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 AdditionWin dow 1 2 P CPICH 3 time AdditionTime 3 Measurement Report no To the AS? Soc Classification level 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks RNC AdditionReportingInterval 4 .

Cell 1 Cell 2 ACTIVE SET UPDATE Addition A-I Core Networ k Active AMR Call ongoing MEASUREMENT CONTROL RRC MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): e1a RRC RRC RRC Handov er Control Admission Control RADIO LINK ADDITION NBAP REQUEST NBAP RADIO LINK ADDITION RESPONSE NBAP NBAP ALCAP ERQ ALCAP ALCAP ECF ALCAP FP Downlink Sync FP FP Uplink Sync FP ACTIVE SET UPDATE RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATE COMPLETE RRC MEASUREMENT CONTROL RRC Required for soft handover RRC RRC RRC New Cell has been Added and Neighbour lists are updated Soc Classification level 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range Strongest CPICH in AS Ec/Io P CPICH 1 2 P CPICH 2 DropWindow 1 P CPICH 3 3 time DropTime Measurement Report Soc Classification level 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks Remove the reported cell from the AS .

SHO_e1b BTS UE RNC Handover tresholds fulfilled (MEHO) .Event 1B is triggered RRC Measurement Report RRC: Active Set Update Request RRC: Active Set Update Complete NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response RRC: Measurement Control Soc Classification level 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH AS has 3 cells Ec/Io P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH 4 1 ReplacementWindow P CPICH 3 weakest CPICH3 in AS time 2 3 ReplacementTime ReplacementReportingInterval no Measurement Report Soc Classification level 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks AS update? RNC .

Event 1C is triggered RRC: Measurement Report NBAP: Radio Link Addition Request NBAP:Radio Link Addition Response RRC: Active Set Update Request RRC: Active Set Update Complete NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response RRC: Measurement Control Soc Classification level 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks .SHO_e1c BTS UE RNC Handover tresholds fulfilled (MEHO) .

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intrafrequency HOs Two Cells in the Active Set Cell 2 Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 9 Neighbour List Cell 6: •Cell 2 •Cell3 •Cell 7 •Cell 11 •Cell 10 •Cell 5 Soc Classification level 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 10 Neighbour List Cell 7: •Cell 3 •Cell4 •Cell 8 •Cell 12 •Cell 11 •Cell 6 Cell 4 Cell 7 Cell 11 Cell 8 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 7 Cell 12 Cell 3 Cell 3 Cell11 Cell11 Neighbour cells which are common to Cell 6 and Cell 7 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 6 Cell Cell22 Cell7 Cell7 Cell Cell10 10 Cell Cell55 Cell Cell44 Cell 8 Cell 8 Cell Cell12 12 Cell Cell66 .

.Cell Cell Neighbourhood List for Intra-frequency HOs 15 Combination Cell 1 Cell Cell22 Cell Cell55 Cell Cell77 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell 11 11 Cell Cell 15 15 Cell Cell 48 48 Cell Cell44 Cell Cell 41 41 Cell Cell66 ... …. Common to 2 Neighbour Lists Step Step33 Cell Cell 33 33 Neighbour Cells defined for only 1 Neighbour list: best Ec/No first Cell2 Cell2 Cell Cell77 Cell 9 Cell Cell Cell9 11 11 Cell Cell 15 15 Cell Cell Cell 37 Cell 37 10 10 Cell Cell 41 41 Cell Cell 49 49 ….... … … Cell Cell Max 32 Cells ..... Cell Cell 43 43 Three Cells in the Active Set Soc Classification level 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks 15 Cell Cell 21 21 Cell Cell22 Cell Cell77 Cell Cell 37 37 Cell Cell 51 51 Cell Cell 49 49 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell 10 10 Cell Cell 56 56 … … .. .. . Cell Cell 25 Neighbour 25 Cells Lists Step Step44 Cell 1 Cell Cell22 Cell Cell33 Cell Cell77 Step Step22 Cell Cell 11 11 Common to 3 Neighbour Lists Cell Cell 50 50 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell 13 13 Cell Cell 10 10 Cell Cell 22 22 … … .. . Step Step11 .....

Intersystem Handovers Soc Classification level 21 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date .

3G 2G interworking • Handover from GSM to WCDMA or vice-versa is an inter-RAT HHO • Interworking is also possible in Idle Mode when making cell • • • • • selection Handover reasons are mainly based on coverage in WCDMA and load in GSM Compressed Mode is used in WCDMA for inter-RAT neighbour measurements before handover decision Service downgrade / upgrade might be needed during inter-RAT handover GSM to WCDMA initiated by the GSM radio network WCDMA to GSM initiated by the WCDMA radio network (UTRAN) Soc Classification level 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

Compressed Mode (= Slotted Mode) • The problem: A CS call takes place. The UE is in the CELL_DCH sub-state. or •The compressed mode is applied. UTRAN wants the UE to perform inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements to support inter-frequency handovers. when it has to receive continuously data? • There are two ways to overcome the problem: •Either the UE has a dual receiver. • But how can the UE make measurements on other frequency carriers except for the serving frequency carrier. There is a continuous transmission both in the uplink and downlink direction. Soc Classification level 23 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

7. 4.Compressed Mode: Transmission Gap Methods 3. timeslots Single-frame method TGL radio frame radio frame Double-frame method TGL radio frame transmitted TSs:  8 Soc Classification level 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks radio frame . 5.

Compressed Mode (Slotted Mode) TGPL1 TGPL2 TGD TGSN TGD TGL1 TGL2 TG Pattern 1 TG Pattern 1 #1 TG Pattern 1 #3 TG Pattern 2 TG Pattern 2 #4 #TGPRC transmission gap pattern sequence TGCNF TG TGPL TGSN TGL2 TG Pattern 2 TG Pattern 2 #2 TGL1 Transmission Gap Transmission Gap Pattern Length Transmission Gap Starting slot Number Soc Classification level 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks TGL TGD TGPRC Transmission Gap Length Transmission Gap start Distance TG Pattern Repeat Count .

(ii) Spreading Factor Halving (SF/2) •Handover decision driven by RNC using measurements made by UE . 3G UE needs (a) dual receiver or (b) Compressed Mode capability • CM to ‘create’ gap during which BCCH frequencies on the 2G network can be measured •CM introduces a delay which depends on the measurement reason and pattern used •Two types of CM measurements.Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Procedure Handover Triggering Thresholds set in RNC Event Triggered Coverage/Capacity based HO fulfilled in RNC RNC commands the UE to start IS measurements periodically Measurements are done in Compressed Mode (CM) RSSI measurements and verification for GSM cells UE reports best GSM cells having strongest RSSI results back to RNC RNC makes HO decision and commands UE to target cell Soc Classification level 26 © Nokia Siemens Networks ! •ISHO measurements can be triggered for different reasons •To measure GSM frequencies. GSM RSSI & GSM BSIC verification •Methods for implementing CM are (i) High Layer Scheduling (HLS).

Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Procedure Configured UE measurements RAN Internal measurements UL Quality Downlink DPCH power deterioration UE Tx power CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/I0 Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM RSSI measurements No GSM cell meets HO condition ? Yes No Is BSCI verification required? Yes Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM BSIC measurements Soc Classification level 27 © Nokia Siemens Networks Initiate Handover .

P-CPICH Ec/No 1.e.g. Measurement trigger CPICH Ec/No Reporting event: 1E: A P-CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold 1F: A P-CPICH falls below an absolute threshold (HO triggered if all) Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 1E: HHoEcNoCancel absolute hreshold 1F: HHoEcNoThresh time 1E: HHoEcNoCancelTime1F: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis Soc Classification level 28 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

PS=as required) using new CM pattern •BSIC verification needs synchronisation to GSM IS-HO Target Cell found IS-HO trigger command frame WCDM A RNC sends handover command to UE Soc Classification level 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks RSSI measuremen TRSSI ts BSIC verification TBSIC .Compressed Mode Procedure RNC commands the selected UEs to enter compressed mode and provides compressed mode parameters and neighbour list During the DL reception gap UE can make measurements from 2G network UE measures RSSI of GSM neighbours and reports these to RNC periodically RNC commands UE to decode BSIC of cell with strongest RSSI RNC makes HO decision •RNC informs UE of CM pattern and 2G neighbour list in RRC: Measurement Control message •3GPP states that the UE must be capable of recording a minimum number of GSM RSSI measurement samples per transmission gap •GSM RSSI measurements are made without acquiring GSM synchronisation •UE reports on strongest 6 GSM neighbours at periodic interval defined by GSMMeasRepInterval •RNC applies a sliding averaging window to the measurements provided by the UE •RNC instructs UE to perform BSIC verification (AMR=always.

Handover Decision Soc Classification level 30 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date .

I MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH) RRC Core Networ k RRC Reporting event 1f triggers for first Cell in Active set MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): Event 1f for first cell in Active RRC RRC Set Reporting event 1f ISHO triggering triggers for last Cell in Active set MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): Event 1f for last cell in Active RRC RRC Set Decision to activate inter-RAT measurements. BCCH ARFCN RRC RRC MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): GSM RSSI. TGPSI2) NBAP NBAP RRC MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH): RSSI. CFN. BCCH ARFCN RRC Soc Classification level 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks Compressed Mode Configuration GSM RSSI Measuremen t . Determination of CM-pattern RL RECONFIGURATION NBAP NBAP PREPARE RL RECONFIGURATION NBAP NBAP READY Initial NBAP RL RECONFIGURATION COMIT NBAP RRC PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION (DCCH) RRC RRC PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE (DCCH) RRC COMPRESSED MODE COMMAND (CFN. TGPSI2 RRC RRC MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): GSM RSSI.Inter System Handover .

CFN. TGSPI3) MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH): BSIC.Interface RRC RRC RIL3-RR Core Core Networ Networ kk BSC NBAP ALCAP RELEASE REQUEST ALCAP ALCAP RELEASE RESPONSE ALCAP ALCAP RELEASE REQUEST ALCAP ALCAP RELEASE RESPONSE ALCAP UE is now on 2G and 3G resources have been released Soc Classification level 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks . GSM Cell index) NBAP RRC Handover Request RELOCATION REQUIRED BSSMAP RANAP BSSMAP RANAP Handover Request RELOCATION COMMAND Acknowledge BSSMAP RANAP IU RELEASE COMMAND Handover Detect RANAP BSSMAP RANAP RIL3-RR IU RELEASE COMPLETE RANAP BSSMAP NBAP Handover Complete BSSMAP RRC RIL3-RR Handover Access RIL3-RR RANAP BSSMAP NBAP NBAP RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE GSM BSIC Identification BSSMAP RANAP HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND Handover Complete A .Inter System Handover . TGPSI3 MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH): BSIC.II NBAP RRC RRC COMPRESSED MODE COMMAND (CFN.

ISHO 3G -> 2G .AMR Signaling Flow U E RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Measurement Report Node B RNC RRC: Measurement Control NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control CN ISHO triggering (5 reasons are possible) Initial Compressed Mode Configuration GSM RSSI Measure ment GSM BSIC Identificatio nRANAP: Relocation Required RRC: Handover from UTRAN Command RANAP: Relocation Command RANAP: IU Release Command RANAP: IU Release Complete BSIC verification always performed for AMR calls – no interrupt in voice Soc Classification level 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks call .

ISHO 3G -> 2G .PS Signaling Flow U E Node B RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete CN RNC RRC: Measurement Control NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration ISHO triggering (5 reasons are possible) Initial Compressed Mode Configuration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control GSM RSSI Measurement RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Cell Change Order from UTRAN RANAP: SRNS Context Request RANAP: SRNS Context Response RANAP: SRNS Data Forward Command RANAP: IU Release Command RANAP: IU Release Complete In most cases BSIC verification is not required (data interrupt as UE moves to 2G) PS makes use of RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message Soc Classification level 36 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

20% 50% IS-HO performance at threshold values of –11 dB and –12 dB is very similar.50% 89. .8% 77.25% 45% 86.7% 88.25% 81.7% 81.3% 77. AMR Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning Different CPICH EcNo thresholds were used with setting 3: Routes Route 2 Route 4 Route 6 Total Soc Classification level 37 © Nokia Siemens Networks EcNo (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO Threshold /(Attempts) success rate -11 -12 -14 -11 -12 -14 -11 -12 -14 -11 -12 -14 12/12 12/12 3/9 7/9 8/9 7/9 13/16 13/16 9/20 32/37 33/37 19/38 100% 100% 33.Ec/No Threshold.

3% 88% 88% 66% 84% 80% -90.5% 88. AMR RSCP (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO Threshold /(Attempts) success rate -105 -106 -107 -105 -106 -107 -105 -106 -107 -105 -106 -107 -105 -106 -107 9/9 9/9 8/9 10/10 14/15 11/15 8/9 8/9 6/9 21/25 16/20 -48/53 47/53 25/33 100% 100% 88% 100% 93.Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning Routes Route 2 Route 3 Route 4 Route 6 Total Soc Classification level 38 © Nokia Siemens Networks RSCP Threshold.3% 73. .8% IS-HO performance at threshold values of –105 dB and –106 dB is very similar.7% 75.

2G -> 3G Handover Soc Classification level 39 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

Load and Coverage Reason Handover Load Loadreason reason handover handoverfor forspeech speech and for HSCSD and for HSCSD GSM high loaded WCDMA low loaded GSM GSM GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA Load reason handover Soc Classification level 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks GSM GSMcan canbe beused usedto toextend extend WCDMA coverage area WCDMA coverage area GSM GSM GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMAcan canbe beused used to relieve GSM overload to relieve GSM overload WCDMA WCDMA Mobile moving GSM GSM GSM GSM Coverage reason handover .

Load based handover GSM -> WCDMA Load of GSM cell 100% Load reason Speech Speechto toWCDMA WCDMA handovers only with high only with highGSM GSMload load for speech More Morecapacity capacity for speech for speech Packet PacketData Datato toWCDMA WCDMA regardless of GSM regardless of GSMload load Higher Higherbit bitrates rates for data users for data users 80% 0% Soc Classification level 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

(threshold (thresholdfor forMulti-RAT Multi-RATMS) MS) Handover Handoverdecision decisionisisdone donein incase caseof of oad of the serving cell > load_Threshold oad of the serving cell > load_Threshold and andCPICH CPICHEc/No Ec/No(MET) (MET)>> Min MinEc/No Ec/No threshold threshold MS MSselects selectsthe thetarget targetUTRAN UTRANcell cellbased based on measurement results on measurement results Handover Handovercommand commandisissend sendto toMSC MSC Soc Classification level 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Qsearch_C= always (default) Load threshold = 80% (default) Load reporting interval= 20 s (default) .Inter-System handover procedure to WCDMA Inter-RAT Inter-RATmeasurements measurementsstarts startsin incase case he RXLEV of the serving cell is above the RXLEV of the serving cell is aboveor or below the given threshold Qsearch_C. below the given threshold Qsearch_C.

ISHO L3 Signalling 2G->3G Soc Classification level 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks .