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You are on page 1of 19

Learning Unit 2

One-sample and Paired Sign

Test

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Semester II 2012

The One sample Sign test is the equivalent to the one sample t-test of H 0:

= 0.

When the assumption that the sampling distribution of the population is not normal, but

continuous (i.e. not categorical) and symmetrical about .

Pr( X 0 ) Pr( X 0 )

1

2

greater than 0 will be binomial with = (where = probability of

success).

Hence an equivalent null hypothesis of H 0: = 0 is H0:

The equivalent alternative hypothesis H A: < 0 is HA:

or

1

2

1

2

1

2

are:

1) Assign a + or sign to each value, xi of X: + if xi

> 0 , and if xi < 0.

2) Ignore those xi that are equal to 0.

3) The test statistic, S, is the number of + signs in the sample

(S is binomially distributed).

4) The rejection region is obtained from the binomial tables,

1

with n = total number

of + and signs in the sample,

2

and

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

The breaking strength of a certain kind of rope is tested,

giving the following results ( in appropriate units):

169 + 163 + 165 + 160 189 + 150 - 139 - 172 + 160

148

Test whether these data indicate the mean breaking

strength is more than 160, using = 5 %

1

H : 160

The hypotheses are: 0

2

H A : 160

2

replacing each value xi > 160 with a + and each xi < 160 with a

( ignoring values of xi = 160), yields:

n = number of + and signs = 8

S = number of + signs =5

Under H0, S is binomially distributed with n = 8 and = 1/2, so from

the binomial tables:

Pr (S 5) = Pr (S=5) + (S=6) + Pr(S=7) + Pr(S=8)

= 0.3634

Since = 0.05, the rejection region is S 7, with a true level of

0.035.

Hence we accept (Ho), and conclude that there is no evidence that

the mean breaking strength is more than 160.

The easiest of all the non-parametric tests

use to compare sample distributions from two populations that are not independent

(e.g. before-and-after kind of study).

before from the score of after.

The procedure for applying a One Sample Sign Test can be summed

into 7 steps:

Step 2 : Decide the level of significance.

Step 3 : Determine and tally the sign of difference between paired observations.

Step 4 : Determine the test statistic and which Test Distribution to use.

Step 5 : Compute the p-value and decision rule.

Step 6 : Decision rule reject or accept Ho.

Step 7 : Conclusion.

Example

A restaurant is introducing a new recipe of fried chicken. The

marketing department wants to know if the new recipe if

tastier than the original one.

The customers are randomly selected for a test. Each person is

given a piece of original fried chicken to try and rates the taste

on a scale of 1 to 10 (poor to very good).

After drinking a glass of water, the same customer is given a

piece of fried chicken cooked using the new recipe, and asked

to rate the taste using the same scale.

Taste Rating

Customer

and after)

Original

(x)

New recipe

(y)

10

10

= 6+2=8

r = number of fewer signs = 2

of the alternative hypothesis.

Therefore, we do a one-tailed test.

H0: p = 0.5

HA: p > 0.5

The null hypothesis in this example is that the new recipe has no effect

on the preference or choice of the customers.

A negative sign indicates the opposite.

Here, the probability of getting a taste improvement is p = 0.5 because if there is no

effect from the new recipe, the customers preference, i.e. the number of people

liking and disliking the new recipe would be about the same.

number of + and signs.

Step-2 is very straightforward. The level of significant is

usually at = 0.05.

Step -3 is to determine and tally the sign of difference

between the paired data.

For each data pair, subtract one observation from the second observation,

and record the difference as signs of + or .

In a situation where there is no difference in the rating, a zero is given.

Tally all signs. + = 6, = 2 and no difference or 0 = 2.

After tallying all the signs, we determine the test statistic

and which test distribution to use.

Here we designate the number of sign as the test

statistic (because we expect the customers would prefer

the new recipe of fried chicken).

Although non-parametric methods make no restrictive

assumption about the distribution of the population being

sample, we will still need to choose a suitable probability

distribution (i.e. binomial, normal, chi-square, etc) to test

the hypothesis.

distribution.

Only relevant data or pair observations are used for analysis

true, we would expect 50% or 4 persons indicating positive response

and another 4 dislike the new recipe.

In this example, only 8 out of 10 customers are relevant (2 customers give no

indication of a difference in their rating). Therefore, n = 8.

However, the sample data revealed only 2 persons show dislike. The question to ask

now is. What is the chance of having at most 2 out of 8 persons indicating

dislike when in fact Ho is true?

To find the answer, we look into the binomial table for n = 8, r = 2 (i.e.

the number of sign, or people dislike the new recipe), and p = 0.5

i.e. p(r =0) + P(r = 1) + P(r=2) = 0.0039 + 0.0312 + 0.1094

Semester II 2009/2010

Reject Ho if p-value of test statistic <

DIFFERENCE in the taste between the original and new recipe, the

chances of getting at most only 2 out of 8 persons (in this example)

reporting dislike is 14.4%.

failed to reject Ho.

choice/preference) of the new recipe over the original one.

Semester II 2009/2010

If we are conducting a left-tailed test (i.e. H0: p = 0.5, HA: p

<0.5), the value of r is the number of + sign.

If we are making a two-tailed test (i.e. H0: p = 0.5, HA: p

0.5)

we designate the lesser sum of the two signs as r. When we calculate the pvalue, we double the probability obtained from the binomial table.

For instance, in this example, if we are conducting a two-tailed test, the

sample results are 2 x 0.1445, giving a p-value of 0.2890.

When the total number of + and is n 12, the

sample statistic x (i.e. proportion of plus sign) has a

distribution that is approximately normal with a mean p

and standard deviation

Under null hypothesis, Ho : p = 0.5, we assume that the

population proportion p of + sign is 0.5,. Therefore, the

z-value corresponding to the sample test statistic x is :2R n

R = total number of + signs.

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Just as t-test can be applied to paired data to test whether two normal

populations have the same mean or not.

Paired Sample Sign Test can be used to test the hypothesis that two

symmetric continuous population distributions have the same mean.

The procedure are:(i) Calculate di = xi yi, where xi and yi are the paired data.

(ii) Assign a + or sign to each di.

(iii) the test statistic is S = number of + signs (S is binomial)

(iv) The rejection region is obtained from binomial table, with n = total

number of + and signs in the sample.

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example

The number of defective items produced by two production

lines A and B was recorded for 8 days.

Day

172

165

206

184

174

142

156

201

201

179

159

192

177

170

163

182

determine whether these data indicate that one line produces

more defectives than the other at about 5% level of

significance.

STF1103: Statistic for Biology II

Example (continue)

The hypotheses are:

H0 : A = B

HA : A > B

Assigning + or sign to each di,

Day

172

165

206

184

174

142

156

201

201

179

159

192

177

170

163

182

di

Example (continue)

Hence n = 8, and the test statistic is S = 2.

1

2

0.144, we fail to reject Ho at = 0.05. Therefore, we conclude

that there is no significant difference between the two

production lines.

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