MOTIVATION

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Determinants of Performance
Person: Ability Motivation Accurate Role Perceptions Performance Situation: Environmental (Constraints and Facilitators)

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Fundamentals f M tivati n
‡ M tivati n c mes fr m the Latin movere, ³t move´ ‡ Motivation requires:
± arousal to initiate behavior toward a goal ± direction to properly focus that behavior ± persistence to ultimately attain the goal

‡ The motivation ³toolkit´ contains:
± content or need theories to help us understand what people want ± process theories to understand the motivation process
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What is Motivation?
Motivation is a psychological drive that directs a person toward an objective Motives are the ³whys´ of behavior

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Some Theories Of Moti ation
‡ Need (or Content) Theories
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Maslow¶s Need Hierarchy Hezberg¶s Two-Factor Theory Alderfer¶s ERG Theory McClelland¶s Manifest Needs Learning Theory Goal Setting Theory Eq ity Theory Expectancy Theory

‡ Process Theories

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The Need Satisfaction rocess
Need Defi iency Search for Potential NeedSatisfying Goal

Goal ttainment or Frustration

ttempt to ttain Goal

Perception of Potential NeedSatisfying Goal
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Maslo ¶s Needs
‡ Physiological: the need for food, sleep, water, air, and sex ‡ Security: the need for safety, family, stability, and economic security ‡ Social or affiliation: the need to belong, to interact with others, to have friends, and to love and be loved ‡ Esteem: the need for respect and recognition of others ‡ Self-actualization: the need to realize one¶s potential, to grow, to be creative, and to accomplish

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Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs

SelfActualization Esteem Social and Love Safety Physiological

EXHIBIT 6-1 8

Maslow¶s Hypotheses
‡ Needs cluster into five sets ‡ Needs at the lowest unsatisfied level are most salient ‡ A satisfied need is not a motivator ‡ There is a hierarchy of successive prepotency -- once needs at a given level are satisfied, those at the next higher level become most important
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Herzberg¶

w

ct r heory

‡ B ed on interview with 203 engineer nd ccount nt ‡ Individu l were ked to reveal two eparate job-related event in which their work ati faction had improved or declined

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Herzberg¶
‡

wo actor heory (cont.)

inding uggested that there were two completely separate sets of factors, one leads to feelings of satisfaction, the other leads to dissatisfaction ‡ Motivator actors: Pertained to the content of the job; e.g. career advancement, recognition, achievement, sense of responsibility

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Herzberg¶s wo actor heory (cont.)
‡ Hygiene actors: Stemmed from the context in which the job was performed, e.g. job security, company policies, interpersonal relations, working conditions

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Herzberg¶s wo actor heory (cont.)
‡ When present, motivator factors will lead directly to employees¶ feelings of satisfaction, while when not present, they were said to lead to feelings of ³no satisfaction´ or a neutral state

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Herzberg¶s wo actor heory (cont.) ‡ When not present, hygiene factors lead to dissatisfaction of employees, while even if present they were said to be incapable of motivating workers to feel satisfied in their jobs

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Examples of Motivator and Hygiene Factors
Motivator Factors (Sources of Jo Satisfaction and Motivation) Challenge of the ork itself Responsi ility Recognition chievement Jo advancement and professional gro th H giene Factors (Sources of Jo Dissatisfaction; Neutral to Motivation) Physical orking conditions Company policies Quality of supervision Co orker relationships Salary Status Jo security Benefits, including ork ha its and time management
EXHIBIT 6-2 15

Alderfer¶s Sets of Needs (

)

‡ Existence -- all forms of material and physical desires ‡ Relatedness -- all needs involving relationships with significant other persons ‡ Growth -- All needs involving a person making creative and productive efforts on the self and the environment
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Alderfer¶s ERG Theory
Gro th Needs 1. Internal Self-Esteem Needs 2. Self-Actualization Needs

Relatedness Needs 1. Social Needs 2. Social Esteem Needs 3. Interpersonal Safety Needs

Existence Needs 1. Physiological Needs 2. Material Safety Needs

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Growth Opportunities ‡ Challenging Job ‡ Creativity ‡ Organizational Advancement ‡ Responsibility

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Autonomy Interesting Work Achievement Participation

Satisfying Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Needs

Relatedness O ortunities ‡ Friendshi ‡ Interpersonal Security ‡ Athletic Teams ‡ Social Recognition

‡ Quality Supervision ‡ Work Teams ‡ Social Events

Existence O ort nities ‡ Heat ‡ Air Conditioning ‡ Lighting ‡ Rest Rooms ‡ Base Salary ‡ Cafeteria ‡ Insurance ‡ Job Security ‡ Retirement ‡ Health Programs

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Clean Air Drinking Water Safe Conditions No Layoffs Time Off
FIGURE 7±4 7± 18

Alderfer¶s ERG Theory
SA Esteem Love (Social) Safety & Security Physiological
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Growth Relatedness Existence

Mc lelland¶s Manifest Needs
‡ Need for Achievement (nAch): The need to do well no matter what goal is pursued. ‡ Need for Affiliation (nAff): The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people. ‡ Need for Power (nPow): The desire to control other people, to influence their behavior, and to be responsible for them.

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Need for Achievement
Need for Achievement - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals¶ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties
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Need for ower
Need for Power - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual¶s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

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Need for Affiliation
Need for Affiliation - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual¶s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people
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A Graphic omparison of Four ontent Approaches to Motivation
Maslo Sel actualization
Higher order needs

Herzberg
The ork itsel - Responsibility - Advancement - Gro th Achievement Recognition Quality o interpersonal relations among peers, ith supervisors Job security Salary

Alder er
Gro th

McClelland
Need or achievement Need or po er

Esteem Belongingness, social, and love Sa ety and security Physiological

Motivators

Relatedness

Need or a iliation

Basic needs

Hygiene conditions

Existence

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Implications of Need Theories
‡ Different people have different needs structures as well as different needs that may be salient at a given time. ‡ While satisfaction occurs when needs are met, motivation flows from lack of satisfaction. ‡ A reward may satisfy multiple needs. ‡ Needs appear to form two or three clusters.
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Process Theories of Motivation
‡ Equity Theory
± Theory states that motivation is affected by the an individual¶s perception of the equity (³fairness´) of the outcomes (rewards) they receive in return for their inputs (efforts), compared to the outcomes and inputs of other people (referent others). ± Referent other ratio comparisons:
‡ State of equity²ratio comparison is satisfactory. ‡ Overreward²ratio comparison favors the individual. ‡ Underreward²ratio comparison favors the referent other.

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The Equity Theory Comparison
OU O ES
PERSON

OU

O ES

REFEREN O HER

INPU S

??
PERSON

INPU S

REFEREN O HER

FIGURE 7±6 7± 27

Motivational Theory of Social Exchange
Equity Negative Inequity Positive Inequity Comparison other Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Outcomes < Inputs Outcomes > Inputs Outcomes Inputs Outcomes Inputs
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Person

Equity Theory ‡ Responses to a perceived state of inequity:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Alter inputs of the person Alter outcomes of the person Alter inputs of the referent other Alter outcomes of the referent other Distort perceptions of inputs or outcomes Choose a different referent other Leave the situation
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How eople hoose From Among Ways to Reduce Ine uity
‡ People will first try to maximize valued outcomes. ‡ People will be reluctant to increase inputs that are difficult or costly to change. ‡ People will be more resistant to changing perceptions of their own inputs and outcomes than to changing perceptions of their comparison other¶s inputs and outcomes. ‡ People will leave the situation only when ine uity is great and other means of reducing it are not available. ‡ People will be reluctant to change their comparison others.
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Expectancy Theory
Developed by Victor Vroom, expectancy theory de ines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative orms o voluntary activity. The components o expectancy theory are instrumentalities, valences, and expectancies.

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Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs
Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards
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Expectancy Theory
Expectancy (how well the Instrumentality (how well the Valence (the value that

Motivational Force

=

person believes he or she can perform the task)

X

person believes that performance will lead to certain outcomes)

X

the person attaches to the outcome)

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The Components of Expectancy Theory (Figure 6-10)
EXPECTANCY

Second-Order Outcome 1 (e.g., Approval of Supervisor) with Valence V1 Second-Order Outcome 2 (e.g., Pay) with Valence V2

Effort to Perform at a Certain Level

First-Order Outcome (e.g., Performance)

INSTRUMENTALITIES

Second-Order Outcome 3 (e.g., Esteem of Coworkers) with Valence V3 Second-Order Outcome 4 (e.g., Promotion Opportunities) with Valence V4 Second-Order Outcomes 5 to n (e.g., Job Security, Better Work Hours) with Valences V5 to Vn
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Expectancy Model of Motivation
Effort Effort

Performance

Reward

Perceived effort± performance probability
³If I work hard, will I get the job done?´

Perceived performance± reward probability
³What rewards will I get when the job is well done?´

Perceived value of reward
³What rewards do I value?´

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The inkage of Effort to a FirstOrder Outcome
Role Perceptions Ability

E ort

First-Order Outcome ituational onstraints
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Important Goal haracteristics
SPECI IC GOALS DI ICUL GOALS GOAL ACCEPTANCE

OTIVATION

FEEDBACK ON PROGRESS CO PETITION PARTICIPATION IN GOAL SETTING
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GOAL CO ITMENT

Management by Objectives
‡ Management by objectives (MBO) is a motivational technique in which the manager and employee work together to set employee goals. ‡ MBO combines many key goal setting principles, including setting of specific goals, participation in goal setting, and feedback on performance. ‡ MBO may be difficult and time consuming to implement, and may encourage focus on easily-quantifiable goals. ‡ 68 of 70 major studies showed MBO to result in productivity gains.
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