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Geographic

Information Systems
(GIS1402)

Introduction to GIS
Text book: Chapter 1
On-campus: Lecture 1

Outline
What is GIS?
GIS components
Functional elements of a GIS
Why GIS?
What question a GIS can answer?
What is making GIS grow?

What G.I.S. stands for?


GEOGRAPHIC
GEOGRAPHIC (G)
(G)
spatial
spatial (location-specific)
(location-specific) in
in nature
nature
geo-referenced
geo-referenced
INFORMATION
INFORMATION (I)
(I)
measurements
measurements
data
data (spatial
(spatial &
& non-spatial)
non-spatial)
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS (S)
(S)
user
user
hardware
hardware
software
software

What G.I.S. stands for?

Geographic Information Systems


earths features
in real world
locations

data and information

the computer
technology &
support
infrastructure

The GIS

Source: Delaney and Van Niel (2008)

The GIS
Land use
Roads
Zoning
Soil Type
Population Density
Hydrography
Geology
Slope

Data is organised as map layers


Layers use common coordinates

The GIS

Everything is
somewhere. - ERSIS
What does it imply?

What is GIS?
A relatively new interdisciplinary field:
from

geography, computer science, mathematics and


social & environmental sciences.

A GIS may be defined as;


a

tool

an

information system

an

approach to science

multi-billion dollar industry

and/or

a means of raising public awareness.

What is GIS?
Knowledge Base for GIS
Computer Science
& Information
Technology

Geography
and related fields
(cartography, spatial
statistics, etc.)

Application Area
forestry
marketing
geology, etc.

GIS Definitions
GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting,
storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and
displaying spatial data from the real world for a
particular set of purposes (Burrough, 1986)
An information system designed to work with data
referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates
(Star & Estes, 1990)

GIS definitions
Chrisman 1997 defined GIS as an organised
activity by which people:
measure

geographic phenomena

represent
process
use

them in a spatial-oriented database

them to derive new information

the new information in a real life situation

GIS Components

GIS Components
Hardware
Hardware is the computer on which a GIS software runs
Software
Software provides the functions and tools needed for GIS
Data
Raw material for mapping & analyses (spatial & attribute)
People
People or user of GIS who develop real world applications

Functional elements of a GIS


Input/
Capture
Storage

Retrieval

Management

Geographic
Information
System

Display

Manipulation/
Conversion

Output
Analysis & modelling

GIS Functions
Data input bringing (capturing) data into GIS
Data storage storing data in digital format
Data management use of database structure
to track data & ensure data integrity & security
Data retrieval recalling data at will in a
desired format

GIS Functions
Data manipulation tool to convert (edit, alter) data
Data analysis & modelling provide new insight into
data through analysis & combining analyses results to
make future prediction through modelling
Data output extract or export of data elsewhere
Data display produce onscreen & hardcopy displays

Why use GIS?


Geographic data have spatial dimension. GIS process
geographic (spatial) data.
GIS can develop, manage & analyze spatial data
conveniently & cost effectively.
GIS allow management & integration of spatial and nonspatial data to produce useful outcomes.
Computer is an essential tool in todays workplace. The
computer empowers GIS.

What question a GIS can answer?


Where is ?

(location)

What is there?

(identification)

What is the best route?


What exists within ?

(optimisation)
(proximity)

What has changed since? (trend)


What relationship exists?
What if ?

(patterns)

(scenario model)

What is making GIS grow?


Decreasing cost of hardware, software (some free) &

data.
Improved user friendliness of GIS Software.
Realisation of the benefits of spatial data analyses.
Requirements to make site-specific decisions.
Development of complementary technologies Internet
& Web, GPS, RS & IP.
Availability of GIS training and courses.

Why Use a GIS?

High quantity of output


High quality of output
Faster processing
New analytical capabilities
Reduced costs
Increased productivity

Applications
Businessman: Where is the best site to
locate a new shopping centre?
Environmentalist: Which part of the
Brisbane River is the most polluted?
Town Planner: Where can we locate a
new golf course in Toowoomba?
Insurance Company: Which part of
Ipswich is the most prone to bush fire?

How can you apply a GIS?


Environmental Sciences
Monitoring environmental
risk
Management of forests,
catchment, wetlands
Environmental impact
assessment
Hazardous or toxic facility
siting
Groundwater modeling and
contamination tracking

Urban Planning,
Management &
Policy
Zoning, subdivision
planning
Emergency response
Crime analysis
Tax assessment

How can you apply a GIS?


Civil Engineering

Education Administration

Locating underground
Enrollment projections
facilities
School bus routing
Designing alignment for
Real Estate
freeways, transit
Neighborhood land prices
Coordination of
Traffic impact analysis
infrastructure maintenance
Determination of best use

Business

Demographic analysis
Market share analysis
Site selection

Health Care
Epidemiology
Needs analysis
Service inventory

Land Use Mapping

Soil Mapping

Stream Buffering

Topographic Analysis

3-D Modelling & Visualisation

Questions for you to consider


Why are you studying GIS?
What do you expect to learn in this course?
Which is more important for you?
to

learn to use GIS software,

to

understand GIS concepts & principles , and /or

to

learn to apply GIS to solve real life problems,

all

the above.

Useful source of information


What is GIS?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEaMzPo1Q7Q
http://www.gis.com/
http://bgis.sanbi.org/GIS-primer/page_10.htm
http://gislounge.com/what-is-gis/
http://www.mapcruzin.com/what-is-gis.htm
http://www.esri.com/what-is-gis/index.html

Acknowledgement
Most information used in this presentation is
extracted from the Text book Chapter 1 The
Gist of GIS (page 1-14)

The End
Thank you!