# POWER GENERATION & DISTRIBUTION Electromagnetic Induction D.C. Generator D.C. Motor Growler Test A.C.

Motor Alternator

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
The transfer of electric energy from one circuit to another without the aid of electric connections is called induction. When electrical energy is transferred by means of a magnetic field, it is called electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction occurs whenever there is relative movement between a conductor and a magnetic field, provided the conductor is cutting across the magnetic lines of force and is not moving parallel to them.

Faraday¶s first law-Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f is induced in that conductor or, Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes an e.m.f is always induced in it. Faraday¶s second law -The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is equal to the rate of change of flux-linkages.

The relative movement may be caused by a stationary conductor and a moving field or by a moving conductor with a stationary field. A moving field may be provided by a moving magnet or by changing the value of the current in an electromagnet.

CLASSIFICATION
The two general classifications of electromagnetic induction are generator action and transformer action. Both actions are the same electrically but the methods of operation are different.
DYNAMICALLY INDUCED E.M.F Moving conductor, Stationary flux STATICALLY INDUCED E.M.F Varying flux, Stationary conductor Self Induced E.M.F Mutually Induced E.M.F

The direction of induced e.m.f and current can be found by applying left-hand-rule for generators or Lenz¶s Law. Left-hand rule is used where induced e.m.f is due to flux-cutting i.e. dynamically induced e.m.f and Lenz¶s when it is due to change by fluxlinkages i.e. statically induced e.m.f. Faraday's second law determines the magnitude of an induced e.m.f, and Lenz's law determines the polarity.

D.C. GENERATOR

DC generator is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy in the form of direct current.

LEFT HAND RULE FOR GENERATOR

First finger ± Flux thuMb ± Motion Middle Finger ± e.M.F

E.M.F INDUCED IN A COIL

When the coil links with the max. flux, max. e.m.f. is induced in it.

GENERATION OF D.C.
The commutator segment changes the polarity as the coil travels through a set of poles but not the brushes as brushes are fixed.

EFFECT OF INCREASING NO. OF COILS
Increase in no. of coils reduces ripples of the d.c voltage, as shown. Increase in no. of loops does not increase the max. value of generated voltage but increasing the no. of turns in each loop will increase this value.

PARTS OF A D.C GENERATOR Armature A cylindrical structure in which slots are cut to house the copper conductors Frame or Yoke It provides path for the magnetic flux. Also, it holds the field coils & pole pieces. Pole Shoes It provides the required magnetic flux. It can be a permanent or electromagnet Commutator It converts the induced e.m.f into d.c.

Carbon brush Its function is to collect the d.c from the commutator

ARMATURE OF A DC GENERATOR A cylindrical structure, made up of iron to provide a highly permeable path for the flux to concentrate around the armature conductor, in which slots are cut to house the coils.

FIELD, POLE SHOES & WINDINGS

A practical d.c generator uses electromagnets instead of permanent magnets. To produce a magnetic field of the necessary strength with permanent magnets would greatly increase the size of the generator.

COMMUTATOR & CARBON BRUSH The brushes ride on the commutator, forming electrical contact between armature coils & external circuit.

TYPES OF D.C GENERATOR
D.C. SERIES GENERATOR

The armature & field are in series, so the flux increases with increase in load, increasing the e.mf.

D.C. SHUNT GENERATOR
The field is parallel to armature, thus the flux is independent of the load current. So the e.m.f is almost constant.

D.C. COMPOUND GENERATOR The series field has a rising voltage with load & the shunt field has a drooping voltage characteristics. So at higher loads, series field compensates the drop & the terminal voltage is almost constant

D.C. GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Series generator with rising chas. Shunt generator with drooping chas.

ARMATURE REACTION

The current carrying armature conductor has its own field, which increases with the current, which weakens & distorts the main magnetic field

GENERATOR WITH INTERPOLE An interpole has the same polarity as the next main pole in the direction of rotation thus it counteracts the armature reaction

D.C. GENERATOR ASSEMBLY

D.C. MOTOR

DC motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy

FIELD SURROUNDING PARALLEL CONDUCTORS

Force of attraction

Force of repulsion

FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force moves this conductor from a region of more flux to lesser flux.

RIGHT HAND RULE FOR MOTOR If the first finger, thumb & the middle finger of the right hand are stretched as shown, the thumb indicates the direction of motion of the conductor. First finger ± Flux Middle Finger ± e.M.F thuMb ± Motion

TORQUE ON A CURRENT CARRYING COIL On the upper side of the conductor µA¶, flux is less & at the bottom, it is more so it moves upwards similarly µB¶ moves downward, creating a torque.

BASIC D.C. MOTOR OPERATION

There are positions, when there is no torque on the coil. So, in a practical motor more no. of coils arranged at different angles are used.

BACK EMF IN A MOTOR When the rotating armature cuts the main magnetic field, an e.m.f is induced into it, known as back emf. Back e.m.f increases with speed. Difference between supply voltage & back e.m.f decides the current to the motor and the mechanical power developed.

TYPES OF D.C. MOTOR

REVERSING MOTOR DIRECTION

With SPDT switch

With DPDT switch

GROWLER
The coil & laminated core of growler form the primary of a transformer, of which the generator¶s armature becomes the secondary.

TESTING ARMATURE FOR SHORTS The hacksaw blade will vibrate vigorously, if there is any shorts in the armature windings.

TESTING A GROUND IN THE ARMATURE If a ground exists between the windings & the core of the armature, the test lamp will glow. This test may also be accomplished using an ohmmeter.

TESTING THE FIELD COILS
FOR SHORTED TURNS FOR SHORT TO GROUND

A.C. MOTOR AC motor or induction motor is a device, which converts electrical energy (in the form of a.c) to mechanical energy. The stationary part is called as stator, the rotating one as rotor. There is no electrical contact between the stator & the rotor. Conversion of energy is based on electromagnetic induction.

STATOR & ROTOR

A rotating magnetic field is produced when the stator is excited with a 3J±a.c. supply. The speed of rotation is called as synchronous speed, as Ns=120*f /P where f is the frequency & P is the no. of poles

CONSTRUCTION OF STATOR It is made of number of stampings, which are slotted to receive the windings. Since aircraft electrical systems operate at 400 Hz, an induction motor may operate at speeds ranging from 6,000 rpm to 24,000 rpm. Because of this high speed of rotation, 400-Hz ac motors are suitable for operating small high-speed rotors, through reduction gears, in lifting and moving heavy loads, such as the wing-flaps, the retractable landing gear and the starting of engines.

SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR This type of rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with slots for carrying conductors, which are heavy bars of copper, aluminium or alloys. The rotor bars are brazed or electricity welded or bolted to two end rings. In small motors, the entire rotor core is placed in a mould and casting all the bars and end-rings in one piece. The metal commonly used is an aluminium alloy. The motor operation depends upon the production of eddy currents in the steel rotor.

SLIP RING or PHASE WOUND ROTOR This type of rotor is provided with 3-phase windings, which are starred internally. The other three terminals are brought out and connected to three insulated slip rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them, under running condition, the slip rings are short-circuited. As soon as current flows in the stator, the lines of magnetic flux produced in the field coils cut across the rotor and induce a voltage in the bars. The rotor has such an extremely low resistance that the induced voltage causes a large current to flow, and this current creates a magnetic field that reacts with the rotating field in the stator.

SLIP
The rotor of an induction motor will assume a position in which the induced voltage is minimised. There must be a difference in speed between the rotor and the rotating field. This difference in speed is called slip, and is expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed. % slip = Ns-N x 100 Ns Ns:- Synchronous speed = (120 x f / P) rpm N:- Motor or Rotor speed (Ns-N) is called the slip-speed

CAPACITOR START A.C. MOTOR

1 ± Ø a.c motors are not self starting. A capacitor with starting winding offers a phase shift & starts the motor.

SHADED POLE A.C. MOTOR The necessary phase-splitting is produced by induction. A low-resistance, short-circuited coil or copper band is placed across one tip of each small pole. The presence of the ring causes the magnetic field through the ringed portion of the pole face to lag appreciably behind that through the other part of the pole-face.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

Because of the magnetic locking between the stationary & the rotating parts¶ magnetic fields, it runs at the synchronous speed only.

A 3-phase a.c is applied to the stator windings and a rotating magnetic field is produced. A direct current is applied to the rotor winding and another magnetic field is produced. Due to continuous and rapid rotation of stator poles, the rotor is subjected to a torque which is rapidly reversing i.e. the rotor is subjected to torque which tends to move it first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Because of its large inertia, the rotor can not instantaneously respond to such quickly reversing torque and thus it remains stationary. Thus, the synchronous motor is a not a self-starting motor.

All synchronous motors have some kind of starting device. One type of simple starter is another motor, either ac or dc, which brings the rotor up to approximately 90% of its synchronous speed. The starting motor is then disconnected and the rotor locks-in-steps with the rotating field. Another starting method is a second winding of the squirrel-cage type of rotor. This induction-winding brings the motor almost to synchronous speed and when the dc is disconnected to the rotor windings, the rotor pulls into step with the field. If the load on the motor is increased, rotor tends to fall back in phase but it still continuous to run synchronously. The maximum torque, which the motor can develop without pulling out of step or synchronism is, called the pull-out-torque.

COMPARISON BETWEEN SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR & INDUCTION MOTOR 

For a given frequency, the synchronous motor runs at a constant average speed whatever is the load, while the speed of an induction motor falls somewhat with increase in load. A synchronous motor is not self-starting. A dc excitation is required by synchronous motor but not by induction motor. A synchronous motor can be operated over a wide range of power factor both lagging & leading but induction motor always runs at lagging power factor, which may become very low at light loads.

ALTERNATOR
Armature, the stationary part contains 3 phase windings and the rotating magnetic field induces a three phase output a.c voltage in them.

3- FULL WAVE RECTIFIER Phase A ± 1, 4 Phase B ± 3, 6 Phase C ± 5, 2

+Ve Group ± 1, 3, 5

-Ve Group ± 2, 4, 6

Diodes between the lines of max. positive to max. negative voltages conduct.

3 Ø FWR - BRIDGE RECTIFIER
PHASE A PHASE B PHASE C

AVERAGE D.C. (the output contains 6 pulses in one cycle)

VOLTAGE REGULATION Induced e.m.f is proportional to the flux. By controlling the field circuit resistance, this e.m.f can be controlled.

CARBON PILE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Resistance of the carbon piles is inversely proportional to the pressure. So, more the pressure, lesser the resistance, more the field current for the required e.m.f

THREE UNIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR

TRANSISTORISED VOLTAGE REGULATOR