Presented By

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ANNA
Bachelor of technology
Dept. of chemical engineering
ROLL NO. 12001005010

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•Introduction
•Advantages of Hydrogels
•Disadvantages of Hydrogels
•Types of Hydrogels
•Monomers Used In The Synthesis of Syntheti
•Method of Preparation of Hydrogels
•Characterization of Hydrogels
•Common Uses For Hydrogels
•Pharmaceutical Applications of Hydrogels
•Summary and conclusions
•References
•Acknowledgement

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 Hydrogels are highly absorbent natural or synthetic polymers. 3 .Introduction : Definitio n:  Hydrogel is a three-dimensional network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic. sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. water insoluble.

4 .Advantages of Hydrogels :  flexibility similar to natural tissue  low toxicity.  can be injected.  Environmentally sensitive good transport properties.  Biocompatible.  easy to modify.

dehydration and red eye reactions.  Difficulty in Sterilization 5 .sadvantages of Hydrogels:  Hydrogels used as contact lenses causes lens deposition.  Hydrogels have low mechanical strength  Difficulty in handling.  Difficulty in loading.

Chitosan. Batch variation. Animal derived materials may pass on viruses. Collagen.g.pes of Hydrogels : Natural Polymers e.: Dextran. Dextran Sulfate Disadvantages: Low mechanical Strength. 6 .

g.pes of Hydrogels : Synthetic Polymers e.:Poly (vinyl alcohol)  Disadvantages:  Low biodegradability  Can include toxic substances 7 .

Monomers Used In The Synthesis Of Synthetic Hydrogels: Monomer abbreviation Monomer EG Ethylene glycol EGDMA Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate NVP N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone AA Acrylic acid PEGMA PEG methacrylate 8 .

Method Of Preparation Of Hydrogels: Crosslinking Isostatic Ultra High Pressure Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Using Gelling Agents Use Of Irradiation 9 .

10 .Crosslinking: Linear polymers Irradiation Chemical compounds Crosslinking Monomers used in the preparation of the ionic polymer network contain an ionizable group. gets ionized. or undergoes substitution after the polymerization is completed.

By using Cross Linkers: Purpose Examples  To impart sufficient mechanical strength to these polymers  Glutaraldehyde. Drawbacks Presence of residue. Calcium chloride Advantage  Cross linkers prevent burst release of the medicaments. 11 .

Isostatic Ultra High Pressure : Suspension of natural biopolymers (starch) ultrahigh pressure of 300-700 MPa 5or 20 min gelatinization of starch molecules occur. 12 . Where as heat-induced gelatinization (40 to 52°C) causes a change in ordered state of polymer. IUHP brings about changes in the morphology of the polymer.

N-2-dimethyl amino ethyl-methacryalmide (DMAEMA) (a pH and temperature sensitive.Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction: Methacyloyl chloride 2-dimethylamino ethylamine. Nucleophilic substitution.) 13 .

 Turbidity.  Presence of negative charged moieties pose problem of interaction with the drug. Glycerol. Mannitol.  1-2 Propanediol.By Using Gelling Agents: Examples Drawbacks Glycophosphate. 14 .

 Hydrogels prepared by microwave irradiation are more porous than conventional methods. Irradiation method processing is costly Mechanical strength of such Hydrogels is less.Use Of Irradiation: Advantages Drawbacks  Irradiation method is convenient. 15 .

Freeze Thawing:  Sufficient mechanical strength.  Opaque in appearance Drawbacks  Little swelling capacity. Advantage  Good Stability. 16 .

Characterization Of Hydrogels: 17 .

therefore.In-vitro Release Study For Drugs: Since Hydrogels are the swollen polymeric networks. interior of which is occupied by drug molecules. release studies are carried out to understand the mechanism of release over a period of application 18 .

The integrity of the drug delivery device during the lifetime of the application is very important to obtain FDA approval. 19 .Mechanical properties: Mechanical properties of hydrogels are very important for pharmaceutical applications. unless the device is designed as a biodegradable system.

Mechanical properties: A drug delivery system designed to protect a sensitive therapeutic agent.such as protein. must maintain its integrity to be able to protect the protein until it is released out of the system. Changing the degree of crosslinking has been utilized to achieve the desired mechanical property 20 .

a higher degree of cross-linking creates a more brittle structure. However. there is an optimum degree of crosslinking to achieve a relatively strong and yet elastic 21 . Hence.Mechanical properties: Increasing the degree of crosslinking of the system will result in a stronger gel.

Incorporating a co-monomer that will contribute to H-bonding can increase the strength of the hydrogel. 22 .Mechanical properties: Copolymerization has also been utilized to achieve the desired mechanical properties of hydrogels.

Common Uses For Hydrogels: 23 .

and chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. which are used for the targeted delivery of proteins to colon.Summary & Conclusion: Recent developments in the field of polymer science and technology has led to the development of various stimuli sensitive hydrogels like pH. 24 . temperature sensitive.

such as low pH and elevated temperatures.  For this reason. 25 . are found in the body.Summary & Conclusion:  Some environmental variables. either pH-sensitive and/or temperature sensitive hydrogels can be used for site-specific controlled drug delivery.

26 .Summary & Conclusion:  Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules. such as glucose or antigens.  The hydrogels may be suitable as a wound substitutes and can be used in wound healing. can be used as biosensors as well as drug delivery systems.

and protein delivery applications.Summary & Conclusion: New synthetic methods have been used to prepare homo. peptides.and co-polymeric hydrogels for a wide range of drugs. 27 .

294. 2092–2094.868. P. p. The Pharmaceutical Press. 1994.NO.867. 2005. British Pharmacopoeia 2002. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. 2002. 3..756. pp. the Stationary Office. 2. Twenty-First Editions. 28 . Weller ed. 229–232.Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. A. Wade and P. London. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. London.References: 1.J.

Thank You 29 .