3-D IC Fabrication and Devices

Abstract:
3-D integrated circuits have unique fabrication designs that makes it inexpensive,
compact, and more efficient than planar circuits. The components are integrated
vertically and horizontally using less material.

Mai Chery Vue and Dylan Scheunemann
Wednesday April 23, 2014

Outline
❏ Fabrication
❏ Types
❏ Monolithic
❏ Wafer-on-Wafer
❏ Die-on-Wafer
❏ Die-on-Die
❏ Wafer-on-Wafer Steps
❏ Advantages/Disadvantages
❏ Applications

Introduction to 3-D IC’s
❏ A Single Circuit with two or more layers of
active components.
❏ Components can be integrated both
vertically and horizontally.

3-D IC Stacked
Problem with stacking is heat dissipation.

Types of Fabrication
❏ Monolithic
❏ Built on single wafer.
❏ Diced into 3-D IC’s.
❏ Wafer-on-Wafer
❏ Built on two or more wafers.
❏ Aligned, bonded, and diced into 3-D IC’s.
❏ Die-On-Wafer
❏ Components built on two wafers.
❏ One wafer diced and aligned on the second wafer.
❏ Die-On-Die
❏ Components built on multiple dice.
❏ Aligned and bonded into 3-D IC’s.

Types of Fabrication
Chip means Die

Fabrication (Wafer-on-Wafer)
❏ Components are built on two or more wafers
❏ Alignment of wafers
❏ Machine checks for alignment mark
❏ Temporarily brought into contact
❏ Inspected for correct alignment
❏ Bonding of wafers
❏ Then bonded together using the method best suited for
that wafer
❏ Such as Direct, Adhesive, or Thermocompression
bonding

Fabrication (Wafer-on-Wafer)
❏ Thinning of wafers
❏ Can be thinned before or after bonding
❏ Dicing Before Grinding
❏ Saws the front before thinning from the
back
❏ Dicing By Thinning
❏ Applies a trench-etching process
❏ Reduces Damage

Fabrication (Wafer-on-Wafer)
❏ Dicing of wafers


Scribe and Break
Mechanical Sawing
Laser Cutting

Advantages
❏ Chip Performance
❏ Higher Bandwidth
❏ Reduced Power Consumption
❏ Functionality
❏ Circuit Security
❏ Device Packing Density
❏ Fits into a small space
❏ Shorter Interconnects
❏ Cheaper fabrication costs

Disadvantages
❏ Heat due to stacking
❏ Testing methods
❏ Interconnect design
❏ CAD algorithms and tools

Applications
❏ Monolithic IC 3D (Company in California)




FPGA, Gate Array
DRAM
NAND Flash Memory
Image Sensors
Microdisplays

Summary
3-D integrated circuits have layered active components that are vertically and
horizontally integrated. With these designs, there’s about four different
fabrication types: monolithic, wafer-on-wafer, die-on-wafer, and die-on-die.
These new fabrication designs provide for better chip performance, circuit
security, smaller interconnects, and inexpensive circuits.

References
Pictures:
1. http://esl.epfl.ch/page-42448-en.html
http://domino.research.ibm.com/tchjr/journalindex.nsf/9f
2. http://lsi.epfl.ch/page-13135-en.html
e6a820aae67ad785256547004d8af0/2f263eb510ba6030852571c50 3. http://www.intechopen.com/books/metallurgy0032694!OpenDocument
advances-in-materials-and-processes/low-tem
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-dimensional_integrated_circui
perature-wafer-level-metal-thermo-compressi
t
on-bonding-technology-for-3d-integration
4. http://www.tezzaron.com/technology/FaStack
http://homepages.rpi.edu/~luj/Papers/Luj4.pdf
.htm
http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/dt/books/newTitles201201/3-5
27-32646-4/?sID=p2qlnooj68su7htl8qrrc2qjt3
http://electroiq.com/blog/2003/03/wafer-thinning-techniques-for-u
ltra-thin-wafers/
https://www.coherent.com/Applications/index.cfm?fuseaction
=Forms.page&PageID=273
http://www.monolithic3d.com/applications.html

Information:
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Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design by Vasilis F.
Pavlidis & Eby G. Friedman

Five Key Concepts
❏ A 3-D circuit is a Single Circuit with two or more layers
of active components.
❏ 4 Types of Fabrications
❏ Monolithic, Wafer-on-Wafer, Die-on-Wafer, Die-onDie
❏ Wafer-on-Wafer Fabrication
❏ Align, Bond, Thin, Dice
❏ Disadvantage: Heat from stacking
❏ Applications: NAND Flash Memory, and Micro Displays