A. Cosmetology – refers to the study and presence of beauty culture. It
is the professional treatment of the skin, hair, and nails. Success in
beauty culture depends to a large extent upon knowing the “why” and
“how” of the varied services rendered to patrons.
Science of cosmetology
• Salon ecology – the study of the relationship between the living
organisms that exist within a salon and their potential affects on
public health.
Bacteriology – the science that deals with the study of microorganisms
called bacteria.
Sterilization – the process of making an object germ-free by the
destruction of all kinds of bacteria whether beneficial or harmful.
Sanitation – the application of measures to promote public health and
prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
• Anatomy and Physiology – the subjects of inconsiderable
importance to the practice of cosmetology.
Anatomy – the study of gross structures of the body such as muscles,
bones or arteries.
Physiology – the study of the functions or activities performed by
various parts the body.
Histology – the study of minute structure of the various parts of the
body such as the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and oil glands.
Electricity – a form of energy capable of producing magnetic, chemical

B. that can lift one’s morale and help increase self-esteem. and a manifestation that one is indeed taking care of him/herself. hands and total body. face. skin. C. What comprises of being well groomed? • One must wear the right combination of clothes. Manicure and Pedicure Manicuring: a cosmetic beauty treatment for the fingernails and hands. a treatment for just the hands. meaning “hand” and cura meaning “care”. . • Accessories must be well selected. • Hair should be in perfect shape. • Nails must be well cut and shaped. comes from the Latin manus. or both and purpose is to improve the appearance of the hands and nails. Good grooming Good grooming means taking care of the hair. make-up must be done carefully. • For a working woman. Pedicuring: way to improve the appearance of the feet. just the nails.

Please take care with the lunula area as it is the softest part of the nail. . Nail bed: the part of the finger underneath the nail plate. Nail plate: the visible portion of the nail that sits on top of the nail bed ands at the free edge. Matrix: this is where the nail is made so it is not surprising to find out that a healthy matrix will lead to a healthy nail. Lunula: is the moon shaped point where the matrix and nail bed meet. Cuticle: the overlapping skin surrounding the nail. Side wall: the grooves on the sides of the nail between the nail and the skin.• • • • • • • • Nail structure Free edge: the end of the nail plate that is shaped during manicure and pedicure Hyponichium: the portion of skin at the end of the finger underneath the free edge. Its job is to protect the matrix from invading bacteria and physical damage.





Nail file: used to shape and smooth the free edge of the nail. Cuticle pusher: to push back and loosen the cuticle. Emery boards: to shape the free edge of the finger nails with the coarse side and level the nail on the fine side. Cuticle nipper: to trim the cuticle. Nail brush: to clean the nails and finger tips with the aid of warm soapy water. Nail buffer: use to smoothen the top portion of the nail plate. . Nail cutter: to cut the nails.• • • • • • • • Manicure and pedicure implements Orangewood stick: loosen cuticle. to work around the nail and for applying cream and etc.

.Manicure and pedicure cosmetics • Cuticle cream: used to prevent brittle nails and dry cuticle. • Nail whitener: applied as a paste. • Top coat or top sealer: a liquid applied over the nail polish. • Cuticle oil: used to soften and lubricate the skin around the nails. • Abrasive: available as pumice powder and is used to smooth irregular nail ridges. or coated string. • Cuticle remover: used to soften the dead cuticle around the nail. cream. • Nail polish: usually prepared in the form of powder or paste. • Cuticle solvent: may contain 2-5% of sodium or potassium hydroxide plus glycerin. Its smoothes the nail and also imparts a sheen to the bail during buffing. • Nail polisher: solvent containing acetone or other solvent is used to thin out the nail polish while it is thickened. • Nail strengthener: a product designed to prevent the nails from splitting or peeling. • Hand cream and lotion: keep the skin soft by replacing the natural oil lost from the skin. it consists mainly of white pigments (zinc dioxide or titanium dioxide). • Base coat: a liquid product applied before the liquid nail polish. • Nail drier: a fine spray which protects the nail against stickness and dulling.

• Soap: use for finger rings • Warm water: use for finger bath • Towel: used individual towel for each patron • Cleansing tissue: use whenever necessary • Antiseptic: use for minor injuries to tissues surroundings the nails • Disinfectant: use to sanitize implements.Materials: • Absorbent cotton: use to remove cosmetics to the nails. split or torn nails. . to sponge the manicure table • Spatula: use to remove cream from jars • Mending tissue and mending liquid: use to repair and cover broken.

remove old polish •. Dry fingertips •. Remove excess polish •. Apply cuticle remover •. Shape the nails •. Clean under free-edge •. Apply top or seal coat •. Apply liquid polish •. Soften cuticle •. Apply hand lotion .A. Cleanse nails Completion •. Apply the base coat •. Bevel nail •. Loosen cuticle •.Preparation for a Plain Manicure •.

.Nail Art is an imaginative and artistic process. a balanced diet and an extra portion of care on a regular basis. the right beauty sleep every night. Facial care the secret of a beautiful face is proper skincare. it is regenerating and therefore needs care that supports this process. D. creams and massage to tone. at night. exfoliate. neck and shoulders. using masks. it needs protection from the environment effects. Facial treatments: deep cleansing treatment of the face. involving special care and expertise for bringing out the best effects. moisturize and revitalize the skin. It must also be remembered that the needs of the skin change: during the day.

Toners – remove all traces of dirt. since each person has unique features. Facial Make-up the application of cosmetics to the face to emphasize one’s good facial features and minimize less attractive features. forehead and cheeks using two fingers of other hand • Massage the cream into the skin. • Remove the eye shadow by gently wiping it off with a pad of clean cotton wool moistened with eye-cleansing lotion. Moisturizing – without moisture. chin. starting under the throat. • Remove mascara with cotton bud dipped in eye-dipped cleansing lotion. there is no one ideal . • Pour a little facial cleansing cream into the palm of one hand and dab it generously over the nose. the skin will not remain smooth and supple.Cleansing • Remove old make-up and the grime and grease that have been accumulated during the day. make-up or cleanser that remain after cleansing.

neck and even on the back. • Mascara: comes with a sturdy brush in the eyelashes.Kinds of Facial Make-up • Day make up: a simple and light make-up that needs to be subtle and balanced. • Evening make up: make up that is more dramatic. • Lip brush: used to apply lipstick or lip gloss to the lips. • Foundation brush: used to apply liquid or mineral foundation over the face. . • Concealer brush: used to apply to the areas of imperfection on the face. • Eyebrow brush: gives definition and shape to the eyebrows. • Powder brush: used to apply loose powder over the foundation and concealer. • Theatrical/fantasy make up: is typically heavy and loud. • Eye shadow: needs brushes like contour brush. • Photographic make up: make up that take into consideration specifically the effect of the camera. • Blusher blush: used to apply blush or cheek. Implements and Supplies • Eyeliner: is a really thin and fine brush with soft bristles that help you line your eyes with precision.

Place towels and linens 5. Apply concealer 3. Apply cheek color (blush) 9. Apply powder 4. Wash hands . Apply foundation 2. Sanitize work station 6. Clean and sanitize brushes 4. Apply lip color •.Before applying make-up. Disinfect implements 3. Apply eye color 5. moisturize the skin. according to the needs: 1. Apply eyeliner 6. Cleanup and sanitation 1. Discard disposable items 2. Apply mascara 8. Apply eyebrow color 7.

• Shadowing/shading: application of a darker shade of foundation to a particular feature.Corrective make-up • Highlighting: application of a lighter shade of foundation to particular area of the face to focus attention. Eyebrow shape to balance facial features: Low forehead Wide set eyes Close set eyes Round face Long face Square face .


barbers offered dental services along with haircutting. Treatment of the Hair and Scalp • The purpose of giving scalp treatment is to preserve the health. cleanliness and beauty of the hair and scalp. Shampoo – its purpose is to cleanse the scalp and hair. stimulate the muscles and the activity of the scalp glands. • The treatment of the hair and scalp includes regular shampoo and scalp massage services as well as special treatments for hair and scalp conditions. hairdressing and shaving. rest and soothe the nerves. • Scalp manipulations increase the circulation of the blood to the scalp. In ancient times.BARBERING Is one of the oldest and most social professions. .

clients with abnormal scalp conditions should be referred to a physician and never use a scalp or hairtreatment product that contains alcohol before applying high frequency current. • It should not irritate the eyes or skin. • Requirements of a good shampoo product. • It should work efficiently in hard. debris and dirt. Caution: do not suggest a scalp treatment if abrasions or lesions are present. • Usually leave the hair in a more manageable condition. • It should leave the hair and scalp in their naturals conditions. • It should cleanse the hair of oils. . water. as well as soft. Such products can only be safely applied after the high frequency treatment. barbers should not treat scalp diseases caused by parasitic or staphylococcus infections.Characteristics of a Good Shampoo • Shampoos do not contain harsh alkali. advice clients with serious or contagious scalp disorders to consult a physician.

Hot oil treatment • Local hot oil treatment or home made scalp treatment preparation. • Drapes: protective covering used in barbering services to protect client’s clothing and skin. Sabi-gata: this treatment is a mixture of the sap of the sabila plant or aloe. • Commercial hot oil treatment. Draping • Client comfort and protection must always be considered during barbering services. Coconut oil: the oil can be obtained by cooking the kakang-gata. . Kakang-gata: this is first extract from grated coconut.

Combs and Brushes Purpose: 1. Massages the scalp 2. Give hair height and volume as well as some directions. Stimulate blood supply. Removes loose scales 3. Round or curved/styler brush: have rows of lines on a round or curved base and are designed for use in blow-dry styling to add soft curve. Best used on the bob shape cuts and mid length hair. 4. Paddle brushes: have rows of tines on a flat base and are used in blowdry straightened styles to keep the hair smooth and flat. Promote healthy hair growth Types of combs and brushes Wide-toothed comb: designed to detangle and smooth out towe-dried hair Small toothed comb: used for smoOthing and finishing short or straight hairstyles Vented brush: have multiple rows of tines (widely-set) along a base with air holes or openings to allow air to circulate easily. .


Reducing weight and fullness on that edge and moving it to a higher line. Sectioning and Parting Sectioning involves dividing the hair into manageable controllable areas. Graduated cut: is cut and held away from the outside edge. Layered cut: is cut all over head at varying angles following a guide length.Basic hair cuts One length (bob): the whole shape of the cut tends to look triangular. . more width at the bottom edge than anywhere else. Partings are divisions of the larger sections of hair into smaller more manageable areas that enable you to work progressively and methodically. A basic sectioning pattern would be to part the head from the centre of the forehead to the centre of the nape. and across the head from ear to ear.


the curliness or straightness and height. roller setting. quantity and texture of the hair. An important factor is the shape of the face.Hairstyling is the art of arranging the hair with attractive shapes and styles. Hairstyling techniques • Traditional: finger waving. molding the hair. pin curling. • Thermal styling: electrical irons. Choosing the hairstyle depends on various factors. life style. distribution. crimpers and hot rollers . combination of roller and pin curl.

curls and rolls. ringlets. It is used to create good lines.Hair setting is an art of creating curls or weaving. Patterns used in pin curling 1. Counterclockwise direction 3. Alternate direction 4. Clockwise direction 2. Methods of hair setting Pin curl are also called sculpture curls. It is a strand of hair wound into a continuous coil and secured in place with a hairpin or pin curl clip. Horsehoe pattern . waves.

Roller curl is a way of setting the hair by winding a wet strand of hair around a specially made roller. Straight back pattern 2. Bang effect pattern 4. Patterns in roller setting 1. Side pattern 3. It is used to achieve the height and fullness of a particular hairstyle. Dropped crown pattern .